J.M. Backer, M.G. Myers, Jr., S.E. Shoelson, D.J. Chin, X.J. Sun, M. Miralpeix, P. Hu, B. Margolis, E.Y. Skolnik, J. Schlessinger, M.F. White, "Phosphatidylinositol 3'-kinase is activated by association with IRS-1 during insulin stimulation," EMBO Journal, 11:3469-79, 1992.

Morris F. White (Joslin Diabetes Center and Department of Medicine, Harvard Medical School, Boston): "Nailing down the pathways involved in insulin signaling and identifying the ones that fail in 12 million Americans with non-insulin- dependent diabetes have been difficult problems. Since the discovery of insulin more than 70 years ago, generations of scientists have added pieces to the puzzle, but the molecular links between circulating insulin and the intracellular biological responses remain undefined even today.

"Insulin is the principal hormone controlling blood glucose; it stimulates glucose influx and metabolism in muscle and fat, inhibits gluconeogenesis in the liver, and, along with the insulin-like growth factor-1, controls cell growth. Non- insulin-dependent diabetes...

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