S.A. Kliewer, L. Umesono, D.I. Mangelsdorf, R.M. Evans, "Retinoid X receptor interacts with nuclear receptors in retinoic acid, thyroid hormone, and vitamin D signalling," Nature, 355:446-9, 1992.

Steven Kliewer (The Salk Institute, La Jolla, Calif.): "Vitamin D, thyroid hormone, and all-trans retinoic acid are essential cofactors in development, differentiation, and homeostasis. The effects of these endocrine signals on target gene expression are mediated through nuclear hormone receptors (VDR, TR, and RAR), which function as ligand-activated transcriptional regulators by binding to specific DNA sequences, termed hormone response elements (HREs). Work from several laboratories had indicated that VDR, TR, and RAR require auxiliary nuclear factors for high- affinity binding to their cognate HREs. However, the identity of these factors was unknown. In addressing this issue, we have shown that, surprisingly, each of these receptors binds cooperatively to its HRE through the formation of a heterodimer with the retinoid X receptor (RXR),...

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