E.R. Steuer, L. Wordeman, T.A. Schroer, M.P. Sheetz, "Localization of cytoplasmic dynein to mitotic spindles and kinetochores," Nature, 345:266-68, 1990.

Michael Sheetz (Duke University Medical Center, Durham, N.C.): "A major question in the field of mitosis has been: What is the basis of force generation in the movements of chromosomes to the poles? This article shows that a cytoplasmic dynein component is present at the kinetichore at least in prometaphase. Because the microtubules in the spindle are oriented with their minus ends at the pole and cytoplasmic dynein moves toward that end of the microtubule, cytoplasmic dynein would be expected to move the chromosomes to the pole region. More recent studies by Hyman and Mitchison (Nature, 351:206-11, 1991) have shown that in vitro cytoplasmic dynein activity can be found at the kinetichore region of isolated chromosomes.

"These findings shift the emphasis on force generation within the chromosome from that of...

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