Hilary Koprowski equates scientific research with creative expression: "A well-done experiment gives the same sense of satisfaction that a composer feels after composing a sonata." His creative thinking has led to numerous major scientific advances throughout his career. He discovered the first oral polio vaccine in 1950, and received the Order of the Lion from the King of Belgium for his polio immunization efforts in Africa. Koprowski also developed a highly effective vaccine for protection against rabies, a blood test for early detection of cancer, and a serum for effective therapy against cancer of the bowel. In addition, he established a link between viral infection and diseases of the nervous system. Koprowski's current research focuses on the toxic effect of free radicals on lesions caused by viral disease.

A member of the National Academy of Sciences and the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, Koprowski served as director of the...

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