S.A. Rosenberg, P. Aebersold, K. Cornetta, A. Kasid, et al., "Gene transfer into humans--immunotherapy of patients with advanced melanoma, using tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes modified by retroviral gene transduction," New England Journal of Medicine, 323:570-78, 1990.
Steven A. Rosenberg (National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, Md.):
"The practice of medicine in the future may well be transformed as we learn to treat disease not by surgery, radiation, or drugs, but rather by genetic alteration to prevent or modify the disease process. "This paper describes the first successful introduction of foreign genes into humans. This study demonstrates that retroviral-mediated gene transduction is safe and practical for human gene transfer, and lays the basis for clinical protocols using the transfer of genes with therapeutic potential for treating disease.
"The approach is now being extended to the cancer treatment by using the gene for tumor necrosis factor transduced into tumor infiltrating lymphocytes. In addition, the gene for...