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There's a whole lot going on in the nucleus of the cell. Genes are transcribed into complementary DNA and then translated to messenger RNA to carry instructions to the protein-building machinery, while extracellular signals initiate promoters that begin the transcription process. And all the while, balance is maintained between conflicting signals to maintain equilibrium within the cell.
Take, for example, two classes of proteins that initiate gene expression through direct binding to DNA: nuclear receptors and activation protein 1 (AP-1), which is composed of proteins that include...