J. Polchinski, "Critical behavior of random surfaces in one dimension," Nuclear Physics B, 346:253-63, 1990.
Joseph Polchinski (University of Texas, Austin): "In 1989, several groups found that certain solvable matrix systems were equivalent to zero- and one-dimensional string theories. A period of rapid mathematical development followed, but a physical picture was lacking.
"This paper provided such a picture by showing that anomalous scaling in the one-dimensional theory is best understood in terms of an effective field theory of the string center of mass in two space-time dimensions. Many people contributed to this subject. In particular, I cite the work of Sumit Das of the Tata Institute of Fundamental Research in Bombay, India, and Antal Jevicki of Brown University, who have explained the scaling (Modern Physics Letters A, 5:1639, 1990).
"The most important recent developments since this paper was published have been the discovery of a discrete set of `stringy' degrees...