E.J. Ziegler, C.J. Fisher, C.L. Sprung, R.C. Straube, et al., "Treatment of gram-negative bacteremia and septic shock with HA-1A human monoclonal antibody against endotoxin," New England Journal of Medicine, 324:429-36, 1991.

Charles J. Fisher (Center for Critical Care Research, University Hospitals of Cleveland): "Sepsis syndrome is a complex clinical problem resulting from overwhelming infection leading to septic shock and death. The incidence of sepsis syndrome increased 139 percent in the 10-year period ending in 1987 and has an average mortality of 40 percent. Endotoxin secreted by gram-negative bacteria commonly precipitates sepsis syndrome and septic shock by stimulating the macrophage and monocyte to secrete cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor, interleukin-1, interleukin-6, interleukin-8, as well as other mediators of the inflammatory cascade. These endogenous mediators then precipitate cardiovascular insufficiency, multi-organ dysfunction syndrome, cardiovascular collapse, and death.

"Our paper is an important milestone in the field of immunotherapy of sepsis syndrome. This...

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