December 2021 - Gut Guests - Infographic
Infographic: How Worms that Reside in the Gut Could Influence Health
Research in animals and people supports a range of mechanisms by which the parasites affect physiology and immune responses.
ABOVE: © nicolle fuller
Infographic: How Worms that Reside in the Gut Could Influence Health
Infographic: How Worms that Reside in the Gut Could Influence Health

Research in animals and people supports a range of mechanisms by which the parasites affect physiology and immune responses.

Research in animals and people supports a range of mechanisms by which the parasites affect physiology and immune responses.

ABOVE: © nicolle fuller
Infographics
Infographic showing endogenous adenosine enzymes acting on RNA (ADARs) edit genetic material in the cell by attaching to naturally occurring double-stranded RNAs, including mRNAs, and switching out A bases with I bases (left). Therapeutic RNA editing platforms based on this mechanism fall into one of two categories: either they use engineered enzymes, which generally consist of the editing part of the ADAR enzyme attached to another protein such as Cas13 that boosts specificity, alongside a guide RNA that targets the enzyme to the desired location (middle); or they consist of a guide RNA alone, which recruits an endogenous ADAR to edit the target sequence (right).
Infographic: RNA Editing Approaches
Christie Wilcox | Dec 1, 2021
RNA editing platforms leverage the natural activity of ADAR enzymes to make key changes to messenger RNAs before they are translated into proteins.
How C. elegans Transmit Stress Signals to Offspring
Infographic: How C. elegans Transmit Stress Signals to Offspring
Amanda Heidt | Dec 1, 2021
Neurons stressed with chemicals produce Wnt, which in turn triggers changes in the germline.
Illustration showing how seagull chicks know when predators are lurking
Infographic: Animal Embryos Coopt Sound to Survive and Thrive
Amanda Heidt | Nov 1, 2021
Across the tree of life, animals use sound and other vibrations to glean valuable sensory information about their environments even before they are born.
Illustration showing how engineered cells produce proteins that allow scientists to turn cellular processes on and off
Infographic: One Way to Flip the Cell Behavior Switch
Catherine Offord | Nov 1, 2021
Engineered cells produce proteins that allow scientists to turn cellular processes on and off.
Elements from illustration showing enhancer evolution and function
Infographic: Enhancer Activity Across the Tree of Life
Jack J. Lee | Nov 1, 2021
Scientists are still trying to paint a complete picture, but it’s clear that these gene expression regulators have an unusual evolutionary history.
An illustration of a yeast cell (right) and a human neuron (left) showing the processes/features that are similar in the two
Infographic: Modeling Neurodegenerative Diseases with Yeast
Mahlon Collins | Oct 1, 2021
Conservation of structures and functions between single-celled fungi and human cells allow researchers to probe the brain.
Photographs of animals
Numerosity Around the Animal Kingdom
Catherine Offord | Oct 1, 2021
Research in recent decades has explored how animals other than humans perceive different numbers of objects
Illustration of a Macaque viewing patterns of dots on a screen
Infographic: Single-Cell Recordings Identify “Number Neurons”
Catherine Offord | Oct 1, 2021
Some nerve cells in the brains of macaques respond selectively to particular numbers, hinting at a specialized pathway for extracting information about numerical quantity.
Illustration showing how a mouse study identifies the brain regions and specific signaling factors that regulate the sneeze response.
Infographic: The Neural Pathway of Sneezing
Amanda Heidt | Oct 1, 2021
A mouse study identifies the brain regions and specific signaling factors that regulate the sneeze response.
An illustration showing the damage SARS-CoV-2 wreaks on the body
Infographic: The Havoc SARS-CoV-2 Wreaks on the Body
Diana Kwon | Sep 1, 2021
COVID-19 affects far more than just the lungs. Researchers are actively documenting the damage the disease causes to the heart, brain, liver, and much more.
Illustration showing how yeast is used to study histone modifications
Infographic: A Yeast Model for Studying Histone Modifications
Amanda Heidt | Sep 1, 2021
The methodology involves modifying histones and displaying them on the cell surface for analysis.
Illustration showing the bodily systems affected by Long COVID
Infographic: Bodily Systems Affected by Long COVID
Sruthi S. Balakrishnan | Sep 1, 2021
Symptoms documented in cases of long COVID are wide ranging and variable.
Pink-toned illustration of the uterus with a zoom of the inflamed cervix and of the uterine endometrium and immune cells found there
Infographic: Research Questions to Be Tackled by Uterus Transplants
Jef Akst | Aug 1, 2021
Scientists are banking various samples from recipients of donated uteruses to learn all they can about the biology of the organ, and about transplantation more generally.
Infographic: Maternal Microbiota Has Lasting Effects on Offspring
Carolyn A. Thomson, Kathy D. McCoy | Aug 1, 2021
Work in rodents shows that the bacteria living in a mother’s gut can produce immunomodulatory metabolites and influence the production of maternal antibodies—both of which can affect her offspring’s development.
Infographic: How Pregnancy Changes Fat Tissue
Catherine Offord | Aug 1, 2021
Researchers propose a mechanism by which a protein produced in the placenta may trigger blood vessel growth and enlarge fat cells.
Illustration of humans and mice and their gut microbiota
Infographic: Microbiome-Driven Adaptations in Animals
Catherine Offord | Jul 1, 2021
Researchers are using experiments and observational studies to look for host genetic variation that could be partly determined by the gut microbiota.
Infographic: How Scientists Are Creating Coral Cell Lines
Amanda Heidt | Jul 1, 2021
Stable, long-term cell lines will enable scientists to study everything from coral bleaching to biomineralization, knowledge that may help protect corals from ongoing climate change.
Illustration of the BCG vaccine and resulting immune response
Infographic: TB Vaccines in the Pipeline Take Varied Approaches
Anthony King | Jul 1, 2021
More than a dozen vaccines for tuberculosis are currently being tested in clinical trials. Some use whole bacteria as BCG does, while others deliver protein subunits or genetic material carried by viral vectors.  
panel depicting mossy fiber synapses and glutamate signaling dynamics
Infographic: Reverse Signaling Between Neurons
Christie Wilcox | Jun 4, 2021
So-called mossy fiber synapses in the hippocampus can meter the amount of neurotransmitter they receive by sending glutamate against the usual direction of synaptic flow.