Infographic: Exercise’s Effects on the Brain
Infographic: Exercise’s Effects on the Brain

Infographic: Exercise’s Effects on the Brain

Identifying the molecular interactions that occur all over the body during exercise could reveal how it affects learning and memory.

Nov 1, 2018
Ashley Yeager

Physical activity increases the volume of the brain’s hippocampus and improves learning and memory in mice and humans. Mouse studies have linked these effects to the growth and maturation of new neurons. Now, researchers are beginning to unravel the molecular mechanisms that connect exercise to these cognitive benefits.

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1. BRAIN-DERIVED NEUROTROPHIC FACTOR

Exercise influences levels of neurotrophins, proteins that promote the proliferation of neurons and support their function. Physical activity enhances DNA demethylation in the promoter region of the Bdnf gene, increasing the expression of the neurogenesis-boosting signaling factor. Moreover, histone acetylation appears to loosen chromatin to bolster Bdnf transcription.

2. BLOOD SIGNALS

Exercise leads to the secretion of molecules by muscle and fat cells that affect levels of growth factors in the brain, influencing the shape and function of the hippocampus by accelerating new neuron growth and increasing the volume of the brain region.

3. SPERM

In the sperm of male mice that exercise, the abundance of certain microRNAs associated with learning and memory increases. The mice’s offspring show slight cognitive advantages compared with offspring of sedentary mice.

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