These papers were selected from multiple disciplines from the Faculty of 1000, a Web-based literature awareness tool http://www.facultyof1000.com.

A. O'Doherty et al., "An aneuploid mouse strain carrying human chromosome 21 with Down syndrome phenotypes," Science, 309:2033–7, Sept. 23, 2005.

This is the first study to show that a human chromosome can be introduced into a mouse's germline and transmitted to successive generations. The authors introduced a copy of human chromosome 21. The mice carrying the human chromosome developed cardiac and other morphological abnormalities consistent with Down syndrome. This mouse now provides a potentially very useful model.

Colin StewartNational Cancer Institute, USA

K.Y. Wu et al., "Local translation of RhoA regulates growth cone collapse," Nature, 436:1020–4, Aug. 18, 2005.

This is the first study to show that Semaphorin 3A-dependent signaling triggers local translation of the small GTPase RhoA at the growth cone leading to growth cone collapse,...

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