M. Leid, P. Kastner, R. Lyons, et al., "Purification, cloning and RXR identity of the HeLa cell factor with which RAR or TR heterodimerizes to bind target sequences efficiently," Cell, 68:377-95, 1992.

Mark Leid (Oregon State University, Corvallis): "The diverse effects of retinoic acid (RA) on development, cellular growth and differentiation, and homeostasis are mediated by two families of RA receptors that arose independently during evolution and belong to the steroid/thyroid hormone superfamily of nuclear receptors. Retinoic acid receptors (RAR) and retinoid X receptors (RXR) are ligand-inducible trans-regulators that control transcription initiated from the promoters of RA target genes by interacting with cis-acting DNA response elements.

"The two families of nuclear RA receptors, which are differentially activated by configurational isomers of retinoic acid, were initially thought to represent divergent pathways of RA signaling. However, several groups working independently and using different experimental strategies arrived at the same conclusion: RAR and...

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