T.J. Schall, M. Lewis, K.J. Koller, A. Lee, G.C. Rice, G.H.W. Wong, T. Gatanoga, et al., "Molecular cloning and expression of a receptor for human tumor necrosis factor," Cell, 61:361-70, 1990.

Thomas Schall (Genentech Inc., South San Francisco, Calif.): "The biological effects of the protein known as tumor necrosis factor (TNF) have puzzled inves- tigators for years. Though binding studies have revealed that virtually all mammalian cells possess TNF receptors, the molecule's biological activities are somewhat paradoxical. On some cells, TNF acts as a growth factor, while on other cells--including certain tumor cells--it elicits clear cytotoxic effects.

"Our report on the molecular cloning and characterization of a cell-surface TNF receptor, along with a concomitant report by Hansruedi Loetscher and colleagues at Hoffmann-La Roche Ltd. (Cell, 61:351-59, 1990 [Hot Papers, The Scientist, Nov. 25, 1991, page 16]), for the first time allowed for an investigation of the complexities of TNF action...

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