M.R. Douglas, S.H. Shenker, "Strings in less than one dimension," Nuclear Physics B, 335:635-54, 1990.

Michael R. Douglas (Rutgers University, Piscataway, N.J.): "Superstring theory remains the prime candidate for describing quantum gravity and the other interactions, so it is all the more frustrating that we still do not have a complete formulation of the theory. Even the drastic simplification of reducing the space-time dimension to two or less seemed hard, but work done in 1987-89, including that by Vladimir Kazakov and Alexander Migdal (Landau Institute, Moscow) and Fran!ois David (Saclay Nuclear Research Center, France), showed that a new formulation, based on discrete world-sheets, was very powerful in low dimensions. Our work and, independently, that of Kazakov and Edouard Brezin (Physics Letters B, 236:144-50, 1990; see `Hot Papers,' The Scientist, Jan. 7, 1991, page 20) and David Gross and Migdal (Physical Review Letters, 64:127-30, 1990) adapted this formulation to solve...

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