Organoids hold the key to unlocking 3D discoveries in disease and development. Whether researchers aim to model organ architecture1 or replicate tumor microenvironments,2 growing and differentiating stem cells into specific organoids starts with choosing the right protocols and reagents.

          Human body diagram with inset organoid types connected to target tissues (mammary gland organoid, liver organoid, intestinal organoid, cerebral organoid, lung organoid, and stomach organoid).
Researchers use different combinations of cytokines to culture a variety of organoids.
Sino Biological

Scientists introduce cytokines and growth factors into culture media to manipulate the signaling pathways involved in organoid formation. Different combinations can be used to culture almost all organoids, including gastric epithelial organoids, liver organoids, pancreatic organoids, and breast organoids. The cytokine mixture required depends on the stem cell source and developmental pathways of the target tissue.3 For example, WENR (Wnt3a/EGF/NOG/RSPO1)1 is one of the most classical cytokine schemes for intestinal organoid cultures, and this scheme can also be applied for other target tissues.

Wnt signaling governs several aspects of development, including cell fate determination, cell migration and proliferation, and tissue maintenance and regeneration.4 In organoid cultures, Wnt signaling helps kickstart tissue formation. Along with epidermal growth factor (EGF), Noggin (NOG), and R-spondin (RSPO1), Wnt allows scientists to culture stem cell-enriched organoids.1 Other critical components that promote stem cell growth and differentiation in organoid cultures include bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) and fibroblast growth factor (FGF).3

Researchers can optimize organoid culture growth and consistency with panels of growth factors that are specifically validated for organoids, such as the WENR cytokines developed by Sino Biological. Growth factor panels have reliable bioactivity and batch-to-batch consistency, enabling scientists to dependably grow organoids representative of their desired target tissues.

Learn more about panels of growth factors for organoid culture.

References

  1. Boonekamp KE, et al. J Mol Cell Biol. 2020;12(8):562-8.
  2. Sun CP, et al. Front Immunol. 2022;13:770465.
  3. Lancaster MA, Knoblich JA. Science. 2014;345(6194):1247125.
  4. Mehta S, et al. Front Cell Dev Biol. 2021;9:714746.
Learn More