Editor's Note: Since 1987, Peter Duesberg, a University of California, Berkeley, retrovirologist, has been contending that HIV is not the cause of AIDS. Eight years after he first put forth his revolutionary hypothesis, dissenters from the once-gospel theory that HIV alone is the culprit have become more visible, and articles about Duesberg's hypothesis have appeared sporadically in the scientific and popular press (see story on page 1). Duesberg's assessment of the role of HIV, however, remains highly controversial; a number of researchers who support his contention that AIDS must be reconsidered nonetheless believe that HIV plays some role, perhaps operating with a cofactor or cofactors.

In the interest of fostering an open discussion of the issue, and for the benefit of those who have not had the opportunity to read Duesberg's views offered in his own words, The Scientist presents the following essay.

Would you have believed...

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