Authors of journal articles want their efforts certified by peer review and made conveniently available to the widest possible readership. They do not expect royalties nor do they receive them. What they hope for is impact. More specifically, they hope for attention, especially from other researchers, and recognition, especially from those who decide which researchers should be hired or promoted. Journal articles have greater impact if they are immediately and widely accessible. In this Internet Age, maximum impact is achieved by toll-free Web access concurrent with paper publication.

Publishers of journals, whether societies or commercial publishers, wish to meet expenses and make a profit. Commercial publishers strive to maximize profits, which has led them to increases in journal prices at rates far in excess of inflation. This, in turn, has led to the "serials crisis" in which research libraries must cancel subscriptions that their clients consider essential. Reduced subscriptions have...

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