When Sandra Panchalingam finished her PhD studies at the University of Birmingham, she set her sights on the United States. "I knew that no matter how hard I worked in the United Kingdom, I would probably never get a chance to run my own lab," she says. "I always believed that in America, if you worked hard, there was an opportunity to reap the benefits. That's not always true in Europe."

Now her postdoctoral training at the University of Maryland is winding down and Panchalingam is completing work under a US Department of Defense grant for breast-cancer research. So she is looking for a job. But she won't look in Europe. "It's a very closed system there," she says. "I have a lot of friends in the United Kingdom, but I might end up being a postdoc for 15 years. It's just not worth it."

Panchalingam is exactly the type...

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