What does it take to win a Nobel Prize in science? An in-depth look at the citation records of this year's Nobel winners affirms that it takes more than good science. Not only must a laureate's work cross the frontiers of research--it must also be disseminated throughout the international scientific community.

The citation records of the six North Americans who clinched the 1990 awards in medicine, chemistry, and physics (The Scientist, Nov. 12, 1990, page 8) indicate the broad and decisive impact these eminent individuals have had in their fields.

Medicine or Physiology

Two medical doctors on opposite coasts of the continental United States shared this year's Nobel Prize in medicine or physiology. E. Donnall Thomas and Joseph E. Murray were honored for their breakthrough research in transplant medicine. Thomas, 70, director emeritus of the Seattle-based Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center's Division of Clinical Research, was cited for his work...

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