Last issue’s Special Report focused on the research institutions and nations that contributed in greatest measure to the 100 life sciences articles that have been listed during the past year in The Scientist’s ‘Hot Papers” column (See “Life Sciences 100, 1987-1988. Pt. 1: Surveying the Players,” The Scientist, May 1, 1989, page 12). These 100 research reports, originally published in 1987 and 1988, were identified as hot because they were so frequently cited by the scientific community—at levels much greater than for other papers of the same type and vintage.

In this issue, we turn from the “players” to analyze the “payers” and ask, "Which government agencies, private foundations, industrial firms, and universities paid, both through grants and institutional support, for this body of recent, significant research?” Such questions are increasingly common among science policymakers, especially in the United States. These planners are faced with steady-state or even shrinking...

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