As an M.D. graduate who earned his Ph.D. degree after completing a residency and joining a medical school faculty, my perspective is somewhat different from those discussed in the article on M.D.-Ph.D. graduates.5 My observation is that new M.D.-Ph.D. graduates are more likely to return to basic science research because they are not adequately trained as clinicians. Medical school is the start of one's medical experience and does not provide the same type of learning experience one receives as a Ph.D. student. What the M.D.-Ph.D. graduate needs is to follow graduation with experience in an environment of "clinical scholarship" of the type discussed in the article. The new M.D.-Ph.D. should expect to work in a clinical science activity, preferably in a residency designed for clinical research activities similar to the basic science postdoctoral fellowships for Ph.D. graduates. If the M.D.-Ph.D. is expected to do "bridge" research, she or he...

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