Editor's Note: The Sept. 28, 1992, issue of The Scientist (page 1) contained an article reporting on a letter from two officials of the National Academy of Sciences to Igor R. Shafarevich, a foreign associate of NAS and head of the algebra section of the V.A. Steklov Institute in Moscow, the mathematics institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences. In the 1970s, Shafarevich criticized the Soviet government, calling for increased human rights in the USSR.

The unprecedented letter, signed by Frank Press and James B. Wyngaarden, NAS president and foreign secretary, respectively, cited "anti-Semitic writings" in Russo-phobia, a text written by Shafarevich. It also said, ". . . we are informed that there are few, if any, Jewish members of the Steklov Institute in Moscow. . is appropriate for you to maintain your membership in the National Academy of Sciences."

In the following essay, Shafarevich responds to the article in...

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