Targeted alliances and sharply focused planning as well as financial clout are factors in their high achievement
Which are the top research universities in the United States? And what makes them the best? Not surprisingly, there are no hard and fast answers to these questions. But when several indicators are compared--such as total research-and-development spending, citations per published paper, and the number of science Nobelists coming from their respective campuses--some general conclusions can be drawn, according to research administrators.

One salient, if predictable, conclusion points to the strong tie between an institution's research achievement record and its financial strength and overall resources: The better-funded schools tend to rank highly in citations per paper and in the number of Nobel Prize winners who were on campus when they received their awards.

Although significant correlations among high rankings according to the various criteria (see tables on pages 8 and 9) are frequently...

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