Scientists and publishers generally agree that the Internet is sparking a science publishing revolution.1 They have yet to agree, however, on how to cultivate that revolution without alienating one another. The latest effort to push the online publishing envelope has a sizable group of scientists threatening to boycott journals whose content is not freely available in a public database six months after publication. This call for a "public library of science" (PLOS) has already caused quite a stir among both scientists and publishers.

The initiative was started late last year by an advocacy group of scientists including Michael Ashburner of the University of Cambridge, Patrick O. Brown of Stanford University, Michael B. Eisen of Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and the University of California, Berkeley, Richard J. Roberts of New England Biolabs, Matthew Scott of Stanford, and Harold Varmus of the Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center. Frustrated with the rate at...

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