M. Radmacher, R.W. Tillmann, H.E. Gaub, "Imaging viscoelasticity by force modulation with the atomic force microscope," Biophysical Journal, 64:735-42, 1993. (Cited in22 publications through December 1994)

Comments by Manfred Radmacher,University of California, Santa Barbara

The development of such high-resolution visualization instruments as the atomic force microscope (AFM) has played an important role in the study of cellular and macromolecular structures, notes biophysicist Manfred Radmacher, currently a postdoctoral scientist in the physics department at the University of California, Santa Barbara.

With resolution capabilities comparable to those of electron microscopes, the AFM--which gives information on surface topography of a sample--can be operated in native environments without the need for fixing samples, he explains. In this paper, the authors have described a technique called force modulation and extended the applications of the AFM to incorporate information on elasticity.

"Besides looking at the shape of a surface, we can now find out the...

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