The “medicalization” of mass killing in Nazi Germany is one of the most horrible incidents in the history of science—a time that must never be forgotten. We owe that to those millions who did not survive—both the victims of the Holocaust and those who fought against it.

In order to transform curing into killing it was necessary that many physicians become murderers or the helpers of murderers. All those who committed these crimes against humanity are responsible for their activities and cannot be excused. They deserve a punishment that corresponds to their crimes. Many, however, like Joseph Mengele, who died last year, have escaped punishment. Mengele lived out the rest of his life in South America, although it is difficult to believe that it was impossible to catch such a worldrenowned criminal. And what of the thousands of other physicians who were responsible to a greater or lesser extent for...

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