linkurl:1. New clue to self-tolerance; Researchers identify a new population of regulatory T cells, important players in immunological self-tolerance, which can be induced by cytokine interleukin IL-35. These iTr35 cells, which can themselves make IL-35 and initiate the production of more iTr35 cells, can suppress and regulate immune responses in a variety of pathogenic models in mice, opening up a new direction in immunology research and presenting possible therapeutic implications.L. W. Collison, et al., "IL-35-mediated induction of a potent regulatory T cell population," linkurl:Nat Immunol,; 2010. Evaluated by Stephen Cobbold, University of Oxford; Stanley Perlman, University of Iowa. linkurl:Free F1000 Evaluation;
Neutrophil immune cell engulfing anthrax bacteria
Image: Wikimedia commons, Etxrge
linkurl:2. Another route to helper T; T helper 17 cells, which are crucial for host defense and autoimmunity, can differentiate in the absence of TGF-β signaling, contrary to conventional wisdom on Th17 differentiation. Th17 cells derived without...
K. Ghoreschi, et al., "Generation of pathogenic T(H)17 cells in the absence of TGF-beta signalling," linkurl:Nature,; 467:967-71, 2010. Evaluated by: Wuzhou Wan and Philip Murphy, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Jeremy McAleer and Jay Kolls, Lousianna State University Health Sciences Centre; Robert Booth, Virobay Inc. linkurl:Free F1000 Evaluation; linkurl:3. Natural killer cells adapt, too; S. Paust, et al., "Critical role for the chemokine receptor CXCR6 in NK cell-mediated antigen-specific memory of haptens and viruses," linkurl:Nat Immunol,; 2010. Evaluated by: Sumi Rajagopalan and Eric Long, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Eric Vivier, Centre d'Immunologie de Marseille-Luminy. linkurl:Free F1000 Evaluation; linkurl:4. Key differentiation factor elucidated; R. Gandhi, et al., "Activation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor induces human type 1 regulatory T cell-like and Foxp3(+) regulatory T cells," linkurl:Nat Immunol,; 11(9):846-53, 2010. Evaluated by: Byron Vaughn, Moritz Schmelzle and Simon Robson, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center; Ru Zhou and Rachel Caspi, National Eye Institute, NIH. linkurl:Free F1000 Evaluation; linkurl:5. Avoiding self destruction; H.J. Kim, et al., "Inhibition of follicular T-helper cells by CD8(+) regulatory T cells is essential for self tolerance," linkurl:Nature,; 467(7313):328-32, 2010. Evaluated by: Takeshi Tsubata, Tokyo Medical and Dental University; Bryce A Binstadt, University of Minnesota. linkurl:Free F1000 Evaluation; linkurl:6. miRNA regulation in immunity; L.F. Lu, et al., "Function of miR-146a in controlling Treg cell-mediated regulation of Th1 responses," linkurl:Cell,; 142(6):914-29, 2010. Evaluated by: Astar Winoto, University of California, Berkeley. linkurl:Free F1000 Evaluation; linkurl:7. Complement-mediated asthma; S. Lajoie, et al., "Complement-mediated regulation of the IL-17A axis is a central genetic determinant of the severity of experimental allergic asthma," linkurl:Nat Immunol,; 11(10):928-35, 2010. Evaluated by: Thirumalai Ramalingam and Thomas Wynn, National Institutes of Health; Sarah Gaffen, University of Pittsburgh. linkurl:Free F1000 Evaluation;

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