G. Dranoff, E. Jaffee, A. Lazenby, P. Golumbek, H. Levitsky, K. Brose, V. Jackson, H. Hamada, D. Pardoll, R.C. Mulligan, "Vaccination with irradiated tumor cells engineered to secrete murine granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor stimulates potent, specific, and long-lasting anti-tumor immunity," Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 90:3539-43, 1993. (Cited in 170 publications through May 1995)

Comments by Glenn Dranoff, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute and Harvard Medical School, Boston

"While the notion of the development of cancer vaccines is quite old--going back almost a century, in fact--clinical experience in the field has in most cases been disappointing," observes Glenn Dranoff, an assistant professor of medicine at the Dana- Farber Cancer Institute and Harvard Medical School. "However, modern ad-vances, such as gene-transfer technologies and the ability to clone cytokine genes, have given us the means to test the possibilities of cancer vaccines in new ways which were not possible before.

"The idea...

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