In his criticism of scientists who find Koch's postulates obsolete,1 Todd Miller overlooks one important point. Recruiting volunteers to apply Koch's postulates to diseases such as Ebola fever and AIDS has been somewhat difficult of late. There was a time when prisoners would do, but we've outgrown that practice. Koch's postulates may or may not be obsolete, but they are not universal.

David Carlberg, Ph.D.
Department of Biological Sciences
California State University
Long Beach, CA 90840

1. T. E. Miller, "Infection-chronic disease link," The Scientist, 14[18]:8, Sept. 18, 2000,
a letter responding to an article, R. Lewis, "The infection-chronic disease link strengthens," The Scientist, 14[17]:1, Sept. 4, 2000.

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