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Mathematicians: Real-World Applications Are Key To Increasing The Field's Appeal
Mathematicians: Real-World Applications Are Key To Increasing The Field's Appeal
Strong academic-industry links are deemed essential to the resuscitation of math's ability to attract and retain top-notch students Mathematicians are looking at the numbers, and some don't like what they see. Despite a spate of recent reports and studies urging greater support for the mathematical sciences and math education, academic funding levels and student retention rates are still far below what math practitioners believe is warranted. A follow-up study to a 1984 National Research Cou
New NSF Structure Reflects Broad Agency Reorientation
New NSF Structure Reflects Broad Agency Reorientation
Date: March 16, 1992 Revamping of the biology directorate and creation of a social sciences unit aims to accommodate new trends in life sciences When Cora Bagley Marrett assumes full duties in May as the first assistant director of the new social, behavioral, and economic sciences division (SBE) of the National Science Foundation, she will give social scientists something for which they have long lobbied: their own voice in high-level NSF decisions. NSF announced the new directorate last Oc
American Indians In Science: Moving Forward, But Slowly
American Indians In Science: Moving Forward, But Slowly
When Christine Benally was a high school student in Shiprock, N.Mex., on the easternmost edge of the Navajo Reservation, her educational goals went no further than getting a vocational degree--as her father, a mechanic, did before her and as many of her friends would do, as well. "I figured something like that would do me," recalls Benally. "Get a technical degree, get out fast, start earning money." Yet some 15 years later, Benally has a doctoral degree in environmental toxicology under her b
New CEO Envisions A Broader Role For New York Academy
New CEO Envisions A Broader Role For New York Academy
The newly appointed chief executive officer of the New York Academy of Sciences says he hopes to guide the academy to a leadership role in the national and international arenas as well as locally. "One of the academy's central functions must continue to be serving the science and engineering community itself," says Rodney W. Nichols, named to the CEO post late last month. "But the function of serving society, which has always been tacit, really has to rise to equal priority." Nichols, a forme
Western Science Learns From Native Culture
Western Science Learns From Native Culture
As American Indians continue to join the ranks of U.S. scientists, many seek to remind their peers that native cultures have been contributing to Western science for half a millennium. "Indians were first-rate geneticists and agronomists," says Hopi tribal member Frank Dukepoo, an associate professor of genetics at Northern Arizona University. "If we'd been able to evolve [without European contact], we'd have had Indian scientists," he argues. "But as they evolved into being scientists, they
Immunoassay Advances As Tool For Environmental Testing
Immunoassay Advances As Tool For Environmental Testing
Immunoassay technology, a quick and cost-effective method of detecting and measuring minute quantities of substances in the human body, has now transitioned from the clinical and biological research arenas to environmental investigations. The technique, which exploits the capacity of a mammalian antibody to latch onto a particular chemical with great specificity, is used in at-home pregnancy tests, workplace drug-screening programs, and AIDS testing. Within the last year, however, several immun

Notebook

Notebook
Notebook
Table of Contents Science Publishing Is Not Perishing Computers Say The Darnedest Things But Only If They Travel First Class Turning Dan Quayle Into A Genius? They Just Might Make It, After All Global Warning Two bimonthly science journals debuted last month. Current Directions in Psychological Science, a publication of the Washington, D.C.-based American Psychological Society, brought out its first issue in February. Also bowing was Surgical Oncology, an international journal coedited b

Commentary

Comments From Readers
Comments From Readers
At the NAS meeting, Linda Wilson's remarks indicated that she deplores competitive machismo in science, which she sees as a male WASP style and one that women can and should change. At the same meeting, MIT astrophysicist Bernard Burke disputed this point, saying, "I think that's a ridiculous idea. That would be a terrible thing to happen for all of science. Above all, we must retain quality. . . . You don't get to do the best science by being a nice guy. Opportunism and competitiveness are esse
We Should--And We Can--Help Lift Eastern European Research Back Onto Its Feet
We Should--And We Can--Help Lift Eastern European Research Back Onto Its Feet
When East VGermany fused with West Germany, the state support of science in the former communist sector came to an end. However, despite some inevitable job insecurity, it appears that East German scientists will, for the most part, be able to go on working as the fusion of the two nations continues. Some of them will be displaced, of course, by job-hungry young scientists of West Germany; but others will be able to hang on to their university positions. For a while, their salaries will be a fr

Opinion

U.S. Research Universities Now Confront Fateful Choices
U.S. Research Universities Now Confront Fateful Choices
Wilson: Different Players Are Joining The Game Editor's Note: An article in The Scientist's Jan. 20, 1992, issue ("Radcliffe President Lambastes Competitiveness In Research," page 3), conveyed the views of Radcliffe College president Linda Wilson on the subject of scientific competitiveness. Wilson, a chemist and former vice president of research at the University of Michigan, had made her case during the course of a National Academy of Sciences meeting on the future of the United States resea

Letter

Investigation Needed
Investigation Needed
I was interested to read the Commentary by J. Gordon Muir in the Jan. 20, 1992, issue of The Scientist [page 14]. Having read the book Kinsey, Sex and Fraud, I have wondered why so little attention has been given to the findings described in it. The negative effect on our society of the research of Kinsey and his associates has been far greater than any conceivable effect of the alleged misconduct of David Baltimore and his associates. I would hope that your article will be the start of pub
Telescope Cost
Telescope Cost
I am writing to correct an error in your Jan. 6, 1992, article entitled "Federal Science Support Keeps On Rising, But So Do Complaints About Underfunding" [page 1]. The discussion of the Directorate for Mathematical and Physical Sciences' budget situation incorrectly lists "a $192 million eight-meter telescope" as one of our projects. The project (the GEMINI 8-Meter Telescopes project) is an international project involving the National Science Foundation and our colleagues of the Science an
Attrition Study
Attrition Study
Our thanks to your readers who have expressed a strong interest in our ongoing national study, "Factors Contributing to High Attrition Rates Among Science, Mathematics, and Engineering Undergraduate Majors" (The Scientist, Feb. 3, 1992, page 1). People who would like a copy of the report to our funders, the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation, on the first phase of the study should contact us directly at: The Bureau of Sociological Research, University of Colorado, Campus Box 580, Boulder, Colo. 80309-05

Research

Photons To Electrons
Photons To Electrons
In 1839, French physicist Edmond Becquerel first noticed that under certain circumstances, sunlight shining on an electrode could create a weak electrical charge. Other scientists dabbled with this photovoltaic process, but it was not until 1954 that researchers at what was then Bell Laboratories in Holmdel, N.J., created a solar cell using crystalline silicon, the same substance used in computer chips. Solar research received a boost from the space program, which saw the conversion of sunlight

Hot Paper

Chemical Physics
Chemical Physics
R.R. Schrock, R.T. DePue, J. Feldman, K.B. Yap, et al., "Further studies of imido alkylidene complexes of tungsten, well-characterized olefin metathesis catalysts with controllable activity," Organometallics, 9:2262-75, 1990. Richard R. Schrock (Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge): "In the olefin metathesis reaction, carbon-carbon double bonds are `chopped in half' and re-formed at random. In this paper we report well-defined metal complexes for this reaction that are relatively s
Chemical Physics
Chemical Physics
J.C. Campuzano, G. Jennings, M. Faiz, L. Beaulaigue, et al., "Fermi surfaces of YBa2Cu3O6.9 as seen by angle-resolved photoemission," Physical Review Letters, 64:2308-11, 1990. Juan Carlos Campuzano (Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Ill.): "Originally, the high-temperature superconductors were expected to have an electronic structure akin to that of the ceramic insulators from whence they are derived. Insulators do not have free electrons to carry the current, and thus any electric field i
Molecular Biology
Molecular Biology
B.F. Pugh, R. Tjian, "Mechanism of transcriptional activation by Sp1: evidence for coactivators," Cell, 61:1187-97, 1990. Franklin Pugh (Howard Hughes Medical Institute, University of California, Berkeley): "The story of eukaryotic transcriptional coactivators has provoked a new way of thinking about how sequence-specific activators communicate with the basal transcriptional machinery. "The prevailing thought prior to this work was that the TFIID component of this machine was a single protein
Molecular Biology
Molecular Biology
T.J. Schall, M. Lewis, K.J. Koller, A. Lee, G.C. Rice, G.H.W. Wong, T. Gatanoga, et al., "Molecular cloning and expression of a receptor for human tumor necrosis factor," Cell, 61:361-70, 1990. Thomas Schall (Genentech Inc., South San Francisco, Calif.): "The biological effects of the protein known as tumor necrosis factor (TNF) have puzzled inves- tigators for years. Though binding studies have revealed that virtually all mammalian cells possess TNF receptors, the molecule's biological activit

Profession

Resources For Inventors
Resources For Inventors
The process of translating an idea into a tangible invention may seem daunting at first. Budding inventors, however, can draw on a host of resources for information and support. Here are just a few: American Intellectual Property Law Association 2001 Jefferson Davis Highway Suite 203 Arlington, Va. 22202 (703) 415-0780 This organization can provide assistance with patent, trademark, copyright, intellectual property, technology transfer, invention, and innovation. It offers a book and suppleme
Advice For Budding Inventors: Put Your Ideas Into Writing
Advice For Budding Inventors: Put Your Ideas Into Writing
Great ideas for a new technology or innovation excitedly scribbled on the backs of envelopes or on cocktail napkins may have lots of potential. But that promise will never be realized unless the ideas are transformed from scribbles to effective prose that can convince investors, technology licensing officials, or patent attorneys of their value. Why bother? These lean economic times may seem like the worst time to start trying to sell ideas--especially to investors. Not so, says Len Vernamont
AVERAGE ANNUAL SALARY OF FEDERAL CIVILIAN SCIENTISTS*
AVERAGE ANNUAL SALARY OF FEDERAL CIVILIAN SCIENTISTS*
AVERAGE ANNUAL SALARY OF FEDERAL CIVILIAN SCIENTISTS* Occupation Total Male Female Minority Health Physics $45,790 $47,562 $38,983 $40,483 Physics 54,191 54,769 44,527 50,817 Geophysics 48,469 49,840 37,423 46,636 Hydrology 41,580 43,160 32,331 38,501 Chemistry 44,804 47,040 38,307 40,726 Metallurgy 52,426 52,754 45,935 50,565 Astro./Space 58,463 58,955 51,404 59,565 Science Meteorology 43,157 43,727 35,656 45,538 Geology 44,954 46,919 36,260 40,437 Oceanography 47,917 49,832 37,
Salaries For Government Scientists Kept Pace With Inflation In 1990
Salaries For Government Scientists Kept Pace With Inflation In 1990
Average salaries for government scientists kept pace with inflation between 1988 and 1990, according to the latest published data from the Washington, D.C.-based Commission on Professionals in Science and Technology. Yet according to the findings, based on material compiled every two years by the United States Office of Personnel Management (OPM), the average pay for women and minority government scientists was lower than the average for all men. The findings indicate that pay increased as a
People: USC Hydrocarbon Chemistry Expert Wins Medal From American Chemical Society
People: USC Hydrocarbon Chemistry Expert Wins Medal From American Chemical Society
George A. Olah, Distinguished Professor of Chemistry and holder of the Donald P. and Katherine B. Loker Chair in Organic Chemistry at the University of Southern California, is the winner of the American Chemical Society's Richard C. Tolman Medal. The award honors those who have made outstanding contributions in chemistry and have accomplished a major portion of their work while living in Southern California. Olah will receive the medal and a citation on March 20. Olah, 64, is the discoverer
Harvard-Smithsonian Astronomer Krucz Honored For His Software Contributions
Harvard-Smithsonian Astronomer Krucz Honored For His Software Contributions
Robert Krucz, an astronomer with the Harvard-Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory in Cambridge, Mass., has received the University of Arizona's 1992 George Van Biesbroeck Award. The annual award recognizes an astronomer whose contributions to the field have been unselfish and unrecognized. Krucz was honored for developing and distributing--without compensation--computer programs useful to astronomers. For 25 years, Krucz has been developing computer programs for studying the atmosphere and c

Briefs

People Briefs: Lennart Carleson
People Briefs: Lennart Carleson
Lennart Carleson Lennart Carleson, a professor of mathematics at Sweden's Uppsala University and at the University of California, and John G. Thompson, the Rouse Ball Professor of Pure Mathematics at the University of Cambridge, England, have been chosen to receive the 1992 Wolf Prize in mathematics. They will share the $100,000 prize, one of several awarded annually in various fields by the Israel-based Wolf Foundation. The president of Israel will present the awards on May 17 i
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