From Redmond, et al., "Perfused transcapillary smooth muscle and endothelial cell co-culture--a novel in vitro model," In Vitro Cellular & Developmental Biology--Animal, Volume 31:601-609. Copyright 1995 by the Society for In Vitro Biology. Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner.

The Cellmax™ culture system uses hollow fiber bioreactor technology in applications as diverse as secreted protein production, lymphocyte expansion, and cellular co-cultivation.
The concept of using artificial capillary beds in a bioreactor chamber fed by a medium perfusion circuit for in vitro cell culture was pioneered in 1972 by Knazek et al. (Science 178:65-67, 1972). The original apparatus supported the growth of human choriocarcinoma cells to tissue-like densities and allowed hormones secreted by the cells to be harvested from the circulating medium without disturbing the cell culture. Almost 20 years after Knazek's original work, Cellco, Inc. (a division of Spectrum Corporation, Laguna Hills, Calif.) commercialized this...

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