RNA Timeline: A History in Hybridization and Structure

Alexander Rich and David Davies discover the double-stranded RNA helix and show that polyribo U and polyribo A hybridize spontaneously.6

Ben Hall and Sol Speigelman carry out DNA-RNA hybridization in viral infected bacterial system.15

Rich and colleagues publish on two RNA double helix fragments solving the structure at atomic resolution.9, 10

Stanley Cohen, Herbert Boyer and colleagues construct the first biologically functional, recombinant bacterial plasmids through hybridization of sticky ends.

Edwin Southern develops the Southern Blot.

Kary Mullis develops PCR, publishing his work in 1985 (see p. 92).

Mario Capecchi and Oliver Smithies independently devise a method of homologous recombination leading to the first knockout mice.
Victor Ambros, Gary Ruvkun and others discover the first microRNA encoding genes.6
Craig Mello and Andrew Fire use dsRNA and note RNAi in Caenorhabditis elegans.6
Rich and Davies...


1. J.D. Watson, F.H.C. Crick, "A structure for deoxyribose nucleic acid," Nature, 171:738-40, 1953.
2. D.M. Brown, A.R. Todd, "Nucleotides, Part IX. Some observations on the structure and chemical behaviour of the nucleic acids," J Chem Soc, 52-8, 1952.
3. A. Rich, J.D. Watson, "Some relations between DNA and RNA," Proc Natl Acad Sci, 40:759-64, 1954.
4. M. Grunberg-Manago et al., "Enzymatic synthesis of nucleic acid-like polynucleotides," Science, 122:907-10, 1955.
5. R.C. Warner, "Ultraviolet spectra of enzymatically synthesized polynucleotides," Fed Proc, 15:379, 1956.
6. A. Rich, D.R. Davies, "A new two-stranded helical structure: polyadenylic acid and polyuridylic acid," J Am Chem Soc, 78:3548, 1956.
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7. G. Felsenfeld et al., "Formation of a three-stranded polynucleotide molecule,"
J Amer Chem Soc, 79:2023-4, 1957.
8. S. Arnott, M.H. Wilkins, "Fourier synthesis studies of lithium DNA - Hoogstein models," J Mol Biol, 11:391-402, 1965.
9. R.O. Day et al., "A crystalline fragment of the double helix: The structure of the dinucleoside phosphate guanylyl-3',5' -cytidine," Proc Natl Acad Sci, 70:849-53, 1973.
10. J.M. Rosenberg et al., "Double helix at atomic resolution," Nature, 243:150-4, 1973.
11. A. Rich, "The transfer of information between the nucleic acids," in Molecular and Cellular Synthesis, D. Rudnick, Ed., New York: Ronald Press, 1961, pp. 3-11.
(Click here for a copy of this document)
12. G.M. Tener et al., "Studies on polynucleotides. II. The synthesis and characterization of linear and cyclic thymidine oligonucleotides," J Am Chem Soc, 80:6223-30, 1958.
13. A. Rich, "A hybrid helix containing both deoxyribose and ribose polynucleotides and its relation to the transfer of information between the nucleic acids," Proc Natl Acad Sci, 46:1044-53, 1960.
14. P. Doty et al., "Strand separation and specific recombination in deoxyribonucleic acids: Physical chemical studies," Proc Natl Acad Sci, 46:461-76, 1960.
15. B.D. Hall, S. Spiegelman, "Sequence complementarity of T2-DNA and T2-specific RNA," Proc Natl Acad Sci, 47:137-46, 1961.

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