Two bonobos facing each other on a tree branch
Q&A: In Battle of the Sexes, Dominance Doesn’t Always Equal Power
The Scientist spoke to hyena researcher Eve Davidian for a broad look at power relationships between male and female mammals.
ABOVE: Martin Surbeck
Q&A: In Battle of the Sexes, Dominance Doesn’t Always Equal Power
Q&A: In Battle of the Sexes, Dominance Doesn’t Always Equal Power

The Scientist spoke to hyena researcher Eve Davidian for a broad look at power relationships between male and female mammals.

The Scientist spoke to hyena researcher Eve Davidian for a broad look at power relationships between male and female mammals.

ABOVE: Martin Surbeck

sex differences

mixing blue and pink smoke, symbolic of the muddled boundaries between sexes
Opinion: Biological Science Rejects the Sex Binary, and That’s Good for Humanity
Agustín Fuentes | May 12, 2022
Evidence from various sciences reveals that there are diverse ways of being male, female, or both. An anthropologist argues that embracing these truths will help humans flourish.
Photo of Ana Marija Jakšic
Ana Marija Jakšić Shapes Fruit Fly Brains
Chloe Tenn | Apr 18, 2022
The Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Lausanne evolutionary neurobiologist is using Drosophila to investigate how organisms adapt to novel environments.
Cute sleeping newborn baby child on mother hands stock photo
Exposure to Chemical from Babies Linked to Aggression
Chloe Tenn | Nov 22, 2021
A study finds that the odorless compound hexadecanal, or HEX, increases aggressive behavior in women but has a calming effect on men.
A watercolor of a baby in a heart-shaped womb
Sex of Fetus Affects Immune Response to COVID-19 During Pregnancy
Amanda Heidt | Oct 20, 2021
Male placentas produce more proinflammatory molecules than female placentas, while people carrying male fetuses produce fewer antibodies in response to infection, a study finds.
group of paleolithic people around a campfire
Gene Variant Points to Starvation’s Evolutionary Legacy
Sophie Fessl | Sep 28, 2021
Ancient and modern genomes reveal that a variant of the human growth hormone receptor likely helped our ancestors survive when food was scarce.
GWAS, psychotic disorder, mood disorder, Q&A, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, depression, sex differences
Genetic Variants Tied to Sex Differences in Psychiatric Disorders
Amanda Heidt | Mar 31, 2021
The largest study of its kind identifies single nucleotide polymorphisms with disparate effects on men’s and women’s susceptibility to conditions such as bipolar disorder and schizophrenia.
neurological disorder, brain disease, Q&A, Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, multiple sclerosis, motor neuron disease, neurodegeneration, blood-brain barrier, sex
Sex of Human Cells Matters in Studying Neurological Disease
Amanda Heidt | Mar 18, 2021
Authors of a new review urge researchers to consider how the chromosomal sex of a cell affects experiments in research on neurodegeneration.
Sex Differences in Immune Responses to Viral Infection
Catherine Offord | Mar 1, 2021
Stronger interferon production, greater T cell activation, and increased susceptibility to autoimmunity are just some of the ways that females seem to differ from males.
Infographic: How SARS-CoV-2 Immune Responses May Differ by Sex
Catherine Offord | Mar 1, 2021
Males and females show differences in gene expression, cell activation, and antibody production in response to some viral infections, but whether these influence COVID-19 outcomes is still unclear.
Infographic: Dialing Down the Glitz
Rachael Moeller Gorman | Sep 1, 2020
The gene BCO2 enables male and female members of some bird species to display dramatically different color patterns.
The Gene that Makes Female Birds Drab
Rachael Moeller Gorman | Sep 1, 2020
In some finch species, the difference between colorful males and muted females comes down to one gene, BCO2, which encodes an enzyme that degrades carotenoids.
Male Flies’ Y Chromosome May Contribute to Earlier Deaths
Jef Akst | Jul 13, 2020
As male Drosophila grow old, selfish genetic elements that are abundant on the Y chromosome become more active, which appears to reduce longevity.
a pair of Northern Cardinals perched on a tree branch
Females Gain Ground as Biomedical Research Subjects
Shawna Williams | Jun 9, 2020
A study finds improvement in the proportion of scientific projects that include both sexes, but analyzing results by sex is not routine.
Why Some COVID-19 Cases Are Worse than Others
Katarina Zimmer | Feb 24, 2020
Emerging data as well as knowledge from the SARS and MERS coronavirus outbreaks yield some clues as to why SARS-CoV-2 affects some people worse than others.
cancer more common in men
Why Is Cancer More Common in Men Than in Women?
Jef Akst | Apr 1, 2019
The molecular processes that lead males to be more susceptible to the disease are only beginning to come to light.
Men React to Repeated Painful Experiences Differently than Women Do
Diana Kwon | Jan 14, 2019
Men’s pain tolerance decreases when exposed to a setting where they’ve previously had a painful experience.
A Retracted Paper on Sex Differences Ignites Debate
Anna Azvolinsky | Sep 27, 2018
Controversy surrounding a mathematical model to explain the so-called “greater variability of males” hypothesis fells two versions of a paper—but critics of the work wish it were still published.
Are the Brains of Transgender People Different from Those of Cisgender People?
Shawna Williams | Mar 1, 2018
Research into the biological basis of gender identity is in its infancy, but clues are beginning to emerge.
Sex Differences in Opioid Analgesia: A Complicated Picture
Catherine Offord | Jan 1, 2018
Researchers are beginning to tease apart the mechanisms underlying differences in how males and females respond to powerful painkillers.