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The face of a young woman and the face of an old man surrounded by mechanical clocks.
Daily Gene Expression Rhythms Vary with Sex and Age: Study
By studying tissues from deceased people, a team found that women have more rhythmical gene expression and that this molecular rhythmicity decreases with age.
Daily Gene Expression Rhythms Vary with Sex and Age: Study
Daily Gene Expression Rhythms Vary with Sex and Age: Study

By studying tissues from deceased people, a team found that women have more rhythmical gene expression and that this molecular rhythmicity decreases with age.

By studying tissues from deceased people, a team found that women have more rhythmical gene expression and that this molecular rhythmicity decreases with age.

sex differences
Artist’s rendition of a neuron silhouetted against a glowing red background.
SNO-y Protein Levels Help Explain Why More Women Develop Alzheimer’s
Dan Robitzski | Jan 6, 2023 | 4 min read
Female postmortem brains contain more S-nitrosylated C3 proteins, likely linked to menopause, which instruct immune cells to kill neuronal synapses.
Artist’s rendition of two X chromosomes in blue, with a glowing orange line swirling around one.
Male and Female Stem Cells Derived from One Donor in Scientific First
Dan Robitzski | Dec 22, 2022 | 3 min read
Studying otherwise identical XY, XX, X0, and XXY pluripotent stem cells will allow researchers to investigate sex-based differences in greater depth.
Artist’s rendition of the molecular structure of a ribosome (blue and purple) as it produces a polypeptide chain (red) from an mRNA template (orange and gray), with tRNA molecules (dark purple) shuttling amino acids.
Specialized Sperm Ribosomes Are Key to Male Fertility in Mice
Dan Robitzski | Dec 15, 2022 | 4 min read
A previously unknown kind of ribosome is responsible for folding sperm proteins, which decay before fertilization if prepared by other ribosomes.
Blue 3D illustration of X-shaped chromosomes
X Chromosome Silenced in Some Cancers in Males
Natalia Mesa, PhD | Nov 11, 2022 | 3 min read
A study finds that XIST, the gene that shuts down one X chromosome in people who have two, is linked to cancer in males. 
A cross-section of a mouse hypothalamus, where cells of the arcuate nucleus are shown in bright green at the bottom.
Methylation in Young Brains May Be Key to Obesity: Mouse Study
Alejandra Manjarrez, PhD | Oct 19, 2022 | 4 min read
Epigenetic events, such as methylation, during early brain development in mice occur in genomic regions associated with BMI in humans, according to a new study.
blue-gloved hands injecting mouse with syringe
Sex of Researcher Influences Ketamine’s Effects in Mice: Study
Shawna Williams | Sep 8, 2022 | 3 min read
The findings likely have implications for animal research far beyond the study of antidepressants.
multiple generations of family members eating at outdoor table
Sun Exposure Triggers Hunger in Men but Not Women, Study Suggests
Shafaq Zia | Jul 12, 2022 | 4 min read
Ultraviolet radiation leads to secretion of an appetite-boosting hormone in male mice, but experts say it’s not yet clear whether the mechanism applies to humans.
Two bonobos facing each other on a tree branch
Q&A: In Battle of the Sexes, Dominance Doesn’t Always Equal Power
Raegan Scharfetter | May 18, 2022 | 6 min read
The Scientist spoke to hyena researcher Eve Davidian for a broad look at power relationships between male and female mammals.
mixing blue and pink smoke, symbolic of the muddled boundaries between sexes
Opinion: Biological Science Rejects the Sex Binary, and That’s Good for Humanity
Agustín Fuentes | May 12, 2022 | 5 min read
Evidence from various sciences reveals that there are diverse ways of being male, female, or both. An anthropologist argues that embracing these truths will help humans flourish.
Photo of Ana Marija Jakšic
Ana Marija Jakšić Shapes Fruit Fly Brains
Chloe Tenn | Apr 18, 2022 | 3 min read
The Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Lausanne evolutionary neurobiologist is using Drosophila to investigate how organisms adapt to novel environments.
Cute sleeping newborn baby child on mother hands stock photo
Exposure to Chemical from Babies Linked to Aggression
Chloe Tenn | Nov 22, 2021 | 3 min read
A study finds that the odorless compound hexadecanal, or HEX, increases aggressive behavior in women but has a calming effect on men.
A watercolor of a baby in a heart-shaped womb
Sex of Fetus Affects Immune Response to COVID-19 During Pregnancy
Amanda Heidt | Oct 20, 2021 | 3 min read
Male placentas produce more proinflammatory molecules than female placentas, while people carrying male fetuses produce fewer antibodies in response to infection, a study finds.
group of paleolithic people around a campfire
Gene Variant Points to Starvation’s Evolutionary Legacy
Sophie Fessl, PhD | Sep 28, 2021 | 4 min read
Ancient and modern genomes reveal that a variant of the human growth hormone receptor likely helped our ancestors survive when food was scarce.
GWAS, psychotic disorder, mood disorder, Q&A, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, depression, sex differences
Genetic Variants Tied to Sex Differences in Psychiatric Disorders
Amanda Heidt | Mar 31, 2021 | 5 min read
The largest study of its kind identifies single nucleotide polymorphisms with disparate effects on men’s and women’s susceptibility to conditions such as bipolar disorder and schizophrenia.
neurological disorder, brain disease, Q&A, Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, multiple sclerosis, motor neuron disease, neurodegeneration, blood-brain barrier, sex
Sex of Human Cells Matters in Studying Neurological Disease
Amanda Heidt | Mar 18, 2021 | 5 min read
Authors of a new review urge researchers to consider how the chromosomal sex of a cell affects experiments in research on neurodegeneration.
Sex Differences in Immune Responses to Viral Infection
Catherine Offord | Mar 1, 2021 | 10+ min read
Stronger interferon production, greater T cell activation, and increased susceptibility to autoimmunity are just some of the ways that females seem to differ from males.
Infographic: How SARS-CoV-2 Immune Responses May Differ by Sex
Catherine Offord | Mar 1, 2021 | 2 min read
Males and females show differences in gene expression, cell activation, and antibody production in response to some viral infections, but whether these influence COVID-19 outcomes is still unclear.
Infographic: Dialing Down the Glitz
Rachael Moeller Gorman | Sep 1, 2020 | 1 min read
The gene BCO2 enables male and female members of some bird species to display dramatically different color patterns.
The Gene that Makes Female Birds Drab
Rachael Moeller Gorman | Sep 1, 2020 | 3 min read
In some finch species, the difference between colorful males and muted females comes down to one gene, BCO2, which encodes an enzyme that degrades carotenoids.
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