Human Arrays

Human Arrays (continued)

A 20th century scientist may have spent an entire career studying the function of a single protein, never imagining that one day it would be possible to study every human gene at once. This capability comes in the form of a microarray, a surface collection of immobilized genes that can be simultaneously examined with specialized equipment.1 Many current applications of arrays, also known as biochips, can be used in functional genomics as scientists seek characteristic patterns of gene expression in different physiopathological states or tissues. A step beyond this, genomic linkage analysis associates genetic markers with disease phenotypes. Arrays also can support massive high-throughput genomic screening, assessing single-base genome changes (single nucleotide polymorphisms, or SNPs) that underlie individual variations in drug response. With many potential applications and the approaching genome explosion, a host of commercial arrays and array tools have suddenly appeared. This article...

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