Teaching. Service. Research. These have been the three-pronged foundation of an academic career, though not necessarily in that order. But according to graduate students, faculty members, and advocates for doctoral education reform, what defines these responsibilities and what role the professorate plays in them--especially teaching--have been changing over the last few years.

Teaching is moving beyond ensuring students can master the subject matter of a course. Now professors are also being asked to instruct students in skills such as oral and written communication and computer technology. And faculty are being asked to serve in more and different ways within the university as well as the nonacademic world.

Doctoral education has focused on research, and still does. But more likely than not, new Ph.D.s hoping to stay in academia will not be concentrating primarily on their research interests, because the majority of higher-education institutions focus on teaching. Advocates for doctoral education...

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