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Independent Institutes Search For New Sources Of Funding
Independent Institutes Search For New Sources Of Funding
'IN TRANSITION': Association of Independent Research Institutes members are looking at new strategies, says president David Beck. Independent research institutes, which garner 10 percent of the National Institutes of Health's extramural research funding budget, rely heavily on federal support. With increased competition for grants and government funding far from assured, these institutes are reevaluating their financial strategies. Members of the Association of Independent Research Institutes
New Molecular Targets Reviving Anti-Inflammatory Therapeutics
New Molecular Targets Reviving Anti-Inflammatory Therapeutics
Photo: Roger Riley NEW UNDERSTANDING: Kelvin Cooper predicts an upswing in interest because of new developments like comprehending the cytokine signaling pathway. Biochemical message-routing molecules are being discovered regularly, giving researchers new targets for developing more efficacious therapeutics to treat inflammatory disease. According to industry observers, these therapies constitute a multibillion-dollar market for treating disorders such as asthma, lupus, multiple sclerosis, ost
Research By FDA Scientists Faces Fiscal Setback
Research By FDA Scientists Faces Fiscal Setback
Agreement on industry user fees may force the agency to scale back its intramural program, which critics say is fragmented. Intramural research at the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is coming under increasing financial pressure and criticism. In discussions with FDA officials, pharmaceutical manufacturers have won an agreement that the user fees they pay will soon no longer help fund the agency's research. Since 1992, approximately $10 million annually from industry user fees
Commencement Speakers Emphasize Challenges
Commencement Speakers Emphasize Challenges
Sidebar: 1997's Roll Call of Honor As colleges and universities the world over honored their graduates in commencement ceremonies this spring, many also chose to celebrate the work of noted scientists by presenting them with honorary degrees. Among the researchers accepting such honors were a former surgeon general of the United States, the "father" of the birth control pill, and a victim of a Unabomber attack. Some distinguished scientists were further honored by being asked to speak at gradua
1997's Roll Call Of Honor
1997's Roll Call Of Honor
Following is a partial listing of scientists given honorary degrees at North American colleges and universities this spring: Bates College, Lewiston, Maine: Jane Lubchenco, Wayne and Gladys Valley Professor of Zoology, Oregon State University, Cornwallis Binghamton University, State University of New York: Arnold J. Levine, Harry C. Weiss Professor and chairman, department of molecular biology, Princeton University Brown University: Leo Esaki, president, University of Tsukuba, Japan; recipien

Opinion

Ex-OSTP Official Hopes To Influence Washington, Academe
Ex-OSTP Official Hopes To Influence Washington, Academe
Editor's Note: Biologist M.R.C. Greenwood has had a banner year. Last July, she was named chancellor of the University of California, Santa Cruz. A short time later, she was selected to serve on the National Science Board and was voted president-elect of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS). Greenwood 's new positions allow her to continue being involved in national science policy, a role she has been in since she served as associate director for science in the Office

Commentary

The Scientist's New LabConsumer Section Reduces Legwork For Potential Buyers
The Scientist's New LabConsumer Section Reduces Legwork For Potential Buyers
Yogi Berra, the affable former manager for the New York Yankees, was once quoted as saying, "A nickel ain't worth a dime anymore." In spite of his confusion about the value of money, Berra's statement addresses the financial concerns of most professionals, be they athletes or scientists. Small products like pipette tips, large ones like automated DNA sequencers, and a wide range of equipment in between constitute the tools of the scientific trade. The cost and quality of these products directl

Letter

Evolutionary Theory
Evolutionary Theory
I was disappointed in your recent article called "To Effectively Discuss Evolution, First Define 'Theory'" (R. Lewis, The Scientist, May 12, 1997, page 13). Ironically, the article does this incorrectly. The article states, "A scientific theory explains a natural phenomenon based on abundant observations and data . . . a theory is a guess." This is incorrect. All science starts with observations and data. Then a hypothesis is put forward to explain the observations. The hypothesis is then test
The Scientist, The Pagan, And The Pope
The Scientist, The Pagan, And The Pope
Two thumbs up to the editorial staff of The Scientist! I was pleasantly surprised when I found in the May 12 issue of your newspaper (page 8) the whole text of the recent message of Pope John Paul II on the theories of evolution. Indeed, publication of the unabridged version of the document is the best way to help your readers base their evaluations of the pope's ideas and wording. Any document of the Church is the result of numerous drafts, discussions, and study, and is usually loaded with fi

Research

Citation Data Reveal World Rankings Of Scientific Papers
Citation Data Reveal World Rankings Of Scientific Papers
Sidebar: 30 Nations Ranked By Citations Per Paper, 1992-1996 EDITOR'S NOTE: In 1991, the then-fledgling newsletter Science Watch analyzed the impact of research articles from hundreds of fields published and cited between 1981 and 1990 for 30 nations (2[1]:1-2, Jan./Feb. 1991). In that study as well as the one reprinted here, the same five nations -- Switzerland, United States, Netherlands, Sweden, and Denmark -- placed in the top five. The current analysis ranks 30 nations according to their
30 NATIONS RANKED BY CITATIONS PER PAPER, 1992-96
30 NATIONS RANKED BY CITATIONS PER PAPER, 1992-96
30 NATIONS RANKED BY CITATIONS PER PAPER, 1992-96 Date: July 7, 1997  NationCitations Per PaperNumber of PapersTotal Citations 1 Switzerland 5.66 55,213 312,564 2 United States 5.03 1,239,188 6,234,187 3 Netherlands 4.45 80,016 356,025 4 Sweden 4.38 61,072 267,685 5 Denmark 4.38 30,719 134,616 6 United Kingdom 4.19 300,577 1,259,427 7 Belgium 3.94 38,095 150,206 8 Finland 3.93 26,998 106,151 9 Canada 3.83 167,326 641,114 10 Germany 3.78 258,946

Hot Paper

Cardiology
Cardiology
Edited by: James Kling B.M. Psaty, S.R. Heckert, T.D. Koepsell, D.S. Siscovick, T.E. Raghunathan, N.S. Weiss, F.R. Rosendaal, R.N. Lemaitre, N.L. Smith, P.W. Wahl, E.H. Wagner, C.D. Furberg, "The risk of myocardial infarction associated with antihypertensive drug therapies," JAMA-Journal of the American Medical Association, 274:620-5, 1995. (Cited in nearly 140 papers through June 1997) Comments by Bruce M. Psaty, University of Washington School of Medicine. RAISING A QUESTION: Bruce Psaty's
Protein Folding
Protein Folding
Edited by: James Kling K.A. Dill, S. Bromberg, K.Z. Yue, K.M. Fiebig, D.P. Yee, P.D. Thomas, H.S. Chan, "Principles of protein-folding-a perspective from simple exact models," Protein Science, 4:561-602, 1995. (Cited in more than 140 papers through June 1997) Comments by Ken A. Dill and Sarina Bromberg, University of California, San Francisco Photo: Phil Mezcy 'ONE-STOP SHOPPING': Ken Dill’s review paper gives a "new, and perhaps controversial, perspective on protein folding." The commo

Profession

As Genomics Grows, Future For Bioinformatics Is Bright
As Genomics Grows, Future For Bioinformatics Is Bright
Combine the explosion of genetic information fostered by the Human Genome Project (HGP) with huge advances in computer technology, and the result is the relatively young field of bioinformatics. The news is good for those seeking work in this burgeoning area: Bioinformaticians anticipate plenty of job openings. Loosely defined, bioinformatics is the management and analysis of biological information contained in databases. An example of such information is the genetic sequencing being generated

Technology

Scientists Use Various Methods To Tackle Protein Purification
Scientists Use Various Methods To Tackle Protein Purification
Tedious, time-consuming, exasperating: Those are perhaps the three words that researchers use most commonly to describe protein purification. Proteins, and their little sisters the peptides, are among the most difficult compounds to purify. Enzyme degradation and chemical decomposition conspire to ruin protein samples throughout the steps of purification. Proteases in the original sample and varying salt concentrations can result in degradation or precipitation. Varying pH and temperature may

Clarification

Clarification
Clarification
In the article "Bioethics Literature Grows As Academic Interest Expounds" (K.Y. Kreeger, The Scientist, May 26, 1997, page 1), Robert Hauptman was incorrectly identified. He is a professor of learning resources at St. Cloud University in Minnesota. E-mail: hauptman@stcloud.msus.edu. In the listing of "NAS's New Foreign Associates" (The Scientist, June 9, 1997, page 4), Johann Deisenhofer's affiliation was noted incorrectly. He is Regental Professor and professor of biochemistry at the Universit

New Products

New Products
New Products
The OlymPix Camera line includes nine cameras differing in resolution, imaging speed, and other performance aspects. OlymPix cameras have an array of low-light-level imaging detectors, which, according to the company, allow for high-resolution detection of fluorescent and luminescent probes for optical reporters of most light-emitting probes currently available. Models range from 12-bit to 16-bit image capture with control over integration time, binning, and subarray readout using the Windows

Notebook

Notebook
Notebook
MORE WORK NEEDED: Scientists have discovered a Parkinson's disease gene, but aren’t certain how many cases are caused by its mutation. The end of June brought with it a pair of studies with potentially valuable information on neurological disorders. In one (M. Polymeropoulos et al., Science, 276:2045-7, 1997), researchers from the National Human Genome Research Institute (NHGRI) and from Robert Wood Johnson Medical School in Piscataway, N.J., reported the first-ever discovery of a gene w
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