News

Scientific Career Forecast For 1994 Remains Gloomy, As Funding Constraints And Sluggish Economy Persist
Scientific Career Forecast For 1994 Remains Gloomy, As Funding Constraints And Sluggish Economy Persist
only slowing down hiring but also laying off their current employees. Last month, for example, Pfizer Inc., headquartered in New York, announced that it would eliminate 3,000 jobs; Kalamazoo, Mich.-based Upjohn Co. announced plans to cut 1,500 jobs; and Indianapolis-based Eli Lilly & Co. announced 4,000 planned layoffs. The displaced scientists are "excellent hires for us," says Ed Bocko, Jr., a biotechnology human resource consultant for Protran Resources Inc. of Sharon, Mass., &
History Of Science Societies Sprout Up Nationwide, With More
History Of Science Societies Sprout Up Nationwide, With More
Foundation, the History of Science Society has seen the development of a number of specialized historical interest groups under its umbrella. In fact, the society has endeavored to remain a unifying instrument for the new groups, rather than see the field become fragmented, says society executive secretary Keith R. Benson. Benson is also a professor of medical history and ethics at the University of Washington, Seattle, and archivist for the history and philosophy of biology division of the Amer
D For Winners
D For Winners
Tobia, so only groups of two to four students can enter, not individuals. "And we encourage a diversity of expertise among the team members," she says. An entry consists of an essay up to 12 pages long describing a community problem, some history and measures already taken to address it, a detailed description of the science-based solution, and a discussion of possible positive and negative consequences of the proposed fix. Arthur Eisenkraft, a physics teacher and science coordinator
Medal Of Science Winners: Eight Pioneers Of Research
Medal Of Science Winners: Eight Pioneers Of Research
rewarded years later with the Nobel Prize. Donald J. Cram, Saul Winstein Professor of Organic Chemistry at the University of California, Los Angeles, won the 1987 Nobel in chemistry for his research into host-guest chemistry, a field he helped create. Cram, 74, began focusing on host-guest chemistry as his main interest in 1970. The field involves the creation of synthetic host molecules that mimic some of the actions performed by enzymes in cells. The host molecules attract and bind to specifi

Notebook

Notebook
Notebook
An `Orderly' End For The SSC If You Can't Bomb 'Em, Join 'Em New Digs Sex Education I: Affairs Of The Hart Sex Education II: Where The Buoys Are Spreading The Word Now that the superconducting supercollider has bitten the dust in Texas, United States high-energy physicists, unsure as to how to pursue their ambitious experimental goals at home, are looking to CERN's Large Hadron Collider in Switzerland as the most likely place to successfully undertake the work. Supporters of the SS

Opinion

Animal Rights Movement Threatens Progress Of U.S. Medical Research
Animal Rights Movement Threatens Progress Of U.S. Medical Research
When I was a medical student in the late 1940s, we did weekly laboratory exercises in physiology and pharmacology. Each group of four students would anesthetize a cat or dog and do an experiment, investigating blood pressure or respiration or recording electrical activity from the brain. That was where we learned how complicated a live animal is, where we learned to cut and sew up skin, where we learned to control the loss of blood, and where we got over some of our squeamishness at the sight o

Commentary

Scientists Should Make Sure They Give NIH Proper Credit For Funding Their Research
Scientists Should Make Sure They Give NIH Proper Credit For Funding Their Research
At a reception for a member of Congress not long ago, a scientific colleague of ours was describing to the guest of honor the devastating effects that budgetary constraints at the National Institutes of Health are having on biomedical research. "Why is Congress not more supportive of NIH?" our colleague asked. "Do you want me to be honest?" replied the congressman. "The NIH has made a lot of unfulfilled promises, wasting billions of dollars in the war against cancer and trying to prevent hear

Letter

`Inexact Substitutes'
`Inexact Substitutes'
Frederick Goodwin and Adrian Morrison misinterpreted my statements regarding animal experimentation in their commentary of Sept. 6, 1993 ("In Animal Rights Debate, The Only Valid Moderates Are Researchers," page 12). The point I made was that medical research is based primarily on studies of human individuals or populations, along with examination of human tissues and cells. Those who use animals as inexact substitutes always encounter problems of extrapolation to humans, often with grave con
The Search For Truth
The Search For Truth
I differ somewhat with the views expressed by Alvin M. Weinberg ("How Do We Identify Science's Most Worthwhile Problems?" The Scientist, July 26, 1993, page 11). I believe individual scientists select a problem because they know its solution would be of considerable interest to them and, possibly, to other scientists and the general public. The practice of science is defined as the conduct of research, which includes theory, experimental design, observation, measurement, and interpretation an

Research

U.S. Institutions, Individuals Dominate Worldwide Genetics Research
U.S. Institutions, Individuals Dominate Worldwide Genetics Research
Editor's Note: Although laboratories throughout the world are making steady research advances in the fields of molecular biology and genetics, perhaps no other realm of life sciences investigation is so heavily dominated by United States institutions and individuals. Among papers in these fields published between 1988 and 1992, 19 of the 25 highest-impact organizations--based on the average number of times their papers were cited by subsequent researchers--sprung from U.S. institutes, universi

Hot Paper

Analytical Chemistry
Analytical Chemistry
F. Hillenkamp, M. Karas, R.C. Beavis, B.T. Chait, "Matrix- associated laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry of biopolymers," Analytical Chemistry, 63:A1193-A1202, 1991. Franz Hillenkamp (Institut fur Medizinische Physik und Bio-physik, Anster, Germany): "Mass spectrometry is a very accurate, sensitive, and informative technique that has considerable analytical potential in modern molecular biology, biochemistry, and biotechnology. Among the most important molecules of interest to biol
Molecular Biology
Molecular Biology
p.17 A.A. Levin, L.J. Sturzenbecker, S. Kazmer, T. Bosakowski, C. Huselton, G. Allenby, J. Speck, C. Kratzeisen, M. Rosenberger, A. Lovey, J.F. Grippo, "9-Cis retinoic acid stereoisomer binds and activates the nuclear receptor RXRa," Nature, 355:359-61, 1992. Arthur A. Levin and Joseph F. Grippo (Department of Toxicology and Pathology, Hoffmann-La Roche Inc., Nutley, N.J.): "The biologic activities of the all-trans (t) isomer of retinoic acid (RA) are mediated through the binding and activati

Technology

Knockout Mice Adding New Punch To Genetic Research
Knockout Mice Adding New Punch To Genetic Research
AUTHOR: RICKI LEWIS, pp.18 In just over a decade, genetically engineered mice have brought dramatic changes to the biomedical sciences, offering basic researchers ways to detect the influences of single genes and more clinically oriented investigators compellingly close models of human disease. The following suppliers are among those providing transgenic and knockout mice to researchers. Charles River Laboratories 251 Ballardvale St. Wilmington, Mass. 01887 (508) 658-6000 Products: OncoM

Profession

Glenn Foundation Lures Scientists And Funders To Biology Of Aging
Glenn Foundation Lures Scientists And Funders To Biology Of Aging
In just over a decade, genetically engineered mice have brought dramatic changes to the biomedical sciences, offering basic researchers ways to detect the influences of single genes and more clinically oriented investigators compellingly close models of human disease. Of Aging A small California foundation that does not accept grant applications has nonetheless gained ground as an unusually flexible seed funder and advocate for research in the biology of aging. Researchers and officials
People: UC-Davis Tomato Genetics Researcher Is Honored With The Von Humboldt Award
People: UC-Davis Tomato Genetics Researcher Is Honored With The Von Humboldt Award
Charles M. Rick, a researcher in tomato genetics and an emeritus professor of vegetable crops at the University of California, Davis, received the $10,000 Alexander von Humboldt Award in a ceremony on the Davis campus October 25. The award is given annually by the Alexander von Humboldt Foundation, which has headquarters in both Germany and the United States. The foundation presents the award to the individual it deems to have made the most significant contribution to American agriculture durin