Funding for biomedical research in the U.S. jumped from $37.1 billion in 1994 to $94.3 billion in 2003, a doubling of support when adjusted for inflation. Private industry provided 57% of this total and the National Institutes of Health (NIH) supplied 28%, according to a study published Tuesday (September 20) in the Journal of the American Medical Association.

"We were surprised to find that the total numbers are as large as they are," said lead author Hamilton Moses III, chairman of the Alerion Institute, North Garden, Va. "No one before had pieced together all of what industry had spent," he told The Scientist.

The study also validated previous reports that the emphasis of research is moving further down the pipeline, showing that a higher portion of funding is being dedicated to clinical studies. For instance, the percentage of research funding dedicated to clinical trials by industry increased...

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