germinal center inside a lymph node
Booster Is Best in the Same Limb as Initial Vaccine: Mouse Study
Compared to mice who got the doses in separate limbs, animals receiving flu shots in the same paw for both a first and second dose had better-trained memory B cells that bound tighter to the vaccine antigen.
Booster Is Best in the Same Limb as Initial Vaccine: Mouse Study
Booster Is Best in the Same Limb as Initial Vaccine: Mouse Study

Compared to mice who got the doses in separate limbs, animals receiving flu shots in the same paw for both a first and second dose had better-trained memory B cells that bound tighter to the vaccine antigen.

Compared to mice who got the doses in separate limbs, animals receiving flu shots in the same paw for both a first and second dose had better-trained memory B cells that bound tighter to the vaccine antigen.

B cells

Bispecific Antibodies Treat Cancer in Mouse Models
Abby Olena | Mar 5, 2021
A trio of papers shows that specialized antibodies can direct T cells to destroy cells that display portions of mutant cancer-related proteins, as well as T cells that have become cancerous themselves.
Immunity to SARS-CoV-2 Lasts at Least Six Months, Data Show
Ashley Yeager | Nov 23, 2020
Half a year after infection, people who had recovered from COVID-19 had robust antibodies, along with traces of the virus in their gut, which may drive long-lasting immunity.
istock image 800x560
Can mRNA Vaccine Momentum Propel Tumor Immunotherapies?
Aparna Nathan | Nov 12, 2021
A guide to mRNA-based cancer vaccines and where they’re headed next
Common Cold Coronaviruses Tied to Less Severe COVID-19 Cases
Anthony King | Nov 11, 2020
Outcomes in COVID-19 patients may be better in those recently infected with endemic coronaviruses. 
Cracking Down on Cancer: A Profile of Owen Witte
Diana Kwon | Apr 1, 2020
Through his studies on cancer-causing viruses, the University of California, Los Angeles, professor has helped develop lifesaving treatments.
Enhancing the Efficacy of CAR-T Cell Therapies
The Scientist Creative Services Team in Collaboration with IsoPlexis | Jun 29, 2021
Jessica Morris will discuss strategies to improve CAR-T cell targeting, activation, and killing capabilities.
a drop of blood for a newborn's heel is placed on a piece of paper
Gene Therapy Effective for Severe Combined Immunodeficiency
Shawna Williams | Apr 17, 2019
Researchers report they’ve found a way to restore immune function in infants with one form of “bubble boy disease.”
Culprit for Antibody Blockade Identified
Amanda B. Keener | Oct 21, 2016
Type I interferon organizes several immune mechanisms to suppress B cell responses to a chronic viral infection.
T Cells: A New Hope for Lasting Protection against SARS-CoV-2
The Scientist Creative Services Team | Dec 15, 2020
Alessandro Sette and Shane Crotty discuss the T cell response to SARS-CoV-2 and the implications for vaccine design and robust immune memory.
Enhancing Vaccine Development
Wudan Yan | Jun 1, 2016
Using proteomics methods to inform antigen selection
When the Flu Vax Fails
Jef Akst | Dec 16, 2015
The status of a person’s immune system can predict when a seasonal flu vaccination will not provide sufficient protection, according to a study. 
B Cells Can Drive Inflammation in MS
Anna Azvolinsky | Oct 21, 2015
Researchers identify a subset of proinflammatory cytokine-producing B cells that may spark multiple sclerosis-related inflammation.  
Studying Ebola Survivors
Amanda B. Keener | Apr 6, 2015
A scientist jumps at the chance to study the blood of four Ebola survivors to better understand how the immune system responds to the deadly virus. 
cards for a memory game, with pictures of pathogens turned over
Thanks for the Memories
Ruth Williams | Feb 1, 2015
B and T cells may be the memory masters of the immune system, but research reveals that other cells can be primed by pathogens, too.
Accelerating Antibody Discovery
Nicholette Zeliadt | May 1, 2014
Techniques for faster discovery and isolation of human monoclonal antibodies
Tumor-Targeting T Cells Engineered
Chris Palmer | Aug 11, 2013
Scientists genetically modify T cells derived from pluripotent stem cells to attack lymphatic tumors.
Biota Babble
Edyta Zielinska | Mar 1, 2012
Editor's choice in immunology
Beyond Expectation
Karen Hopkin | Sep 1, 2011
Philippa “Pippa” Marrack has made some unanticipated discoveries about how the immune system functions in health and disease.