Woman with buns and blue sweater chewing gum, smiling, and stretching pink gum out of her mouth. 
The Energetic Cost of Chewing May Have Shaped Hominin Evolution
The simple act of chewing gum can raise the body’s metabolic rate by as much as 15 percent, a study finds.
The Energetic Cost of Chewing May Have Shaped Hominin Evolution
The Energetic Cost of Chewing May Have Shaped Hominin Evolution

The simple act of chewing gum can raise the body’s metabolic rate by as much as 15 percent, a study finds.

The simple act of chewing gum can raise the body’s metabolic rate by as much as 15 percent, a study finds.

homo sapiens
More Images
An artist's depiction of a new species of Homo, H. longi
“Dragon Man” May Replace Neanderthal as Our Closest Relative
Amanda Heidt | Jun 25, 2021
A massive, well-preserved skull discovered in China in the 1930s belongs to a new species called Homo longi, researchers report, but experts remain skeptical about the evidence.
Early Humans’ Brains Were More Apelike than Modern
Abby Olena | Apr 8, 2021
Impressions that ancient brains left in fossilized skulls reveal that the first human ancestors to migrate out of Africa had much more primitive brains than previously thought.
hominin homo sapiens heidelbergensis erectus evolution climate change extinction
Climate Change Helped Drive Homo sapiens’ Cousins Extinct: Study
Katarina Zimmer | Oct 15, 2020
Sharp drops in global temperatures helped seal the fate of three extinct hominin species, including our close relatives, the Neanderthals, according to thousands of archaeological specimens and a model of past climate conditions.
Genetics Steps In to Help Tell the Story of Human Origins
Katarina Zimmer | Sep 1, 2020
Africa’s sparse fossil record alone cannot reveal our species’ evolutionary history.
Infographic: Meet Your Ancient Ancestors and Relatives in Africa
Katarina Zimmer | Sep 1, 2020
Modern human genomes and bones left behind from ancient hominins in Africa tell a complex story about the origins of our species.
Homo sapiens Might Not Be Responsible for Neanderthal Demise
Catherine Offord | Nov 29, 2019
Researchers’ simulations suggest that small population sizes and inbreeding made Neanderthal populations vulnerable to chance fluctuations in population size.
Bedbugs Predated T. rex and Triceratops, New Family Tree Shows
Ashley Yeager | May 17, 2019
The finding overturns the idea that the insect’s first victims were bats and reveals that certain species started targeting humans as a side snack, not as a main meal.
homo luzonensis teeth callao cave philippines
New Species of Human, Homo luzonensis, Identified in the Philippines
Katarina Zimmer | Apr 10, 2019
Thirteen hominin bones found in a cave are so unique that archaeologists have determined they stem from a distinct hominin species, although others question whether the researchers have enough evidence.
illustration of virus particles
Neanderthal Genes Likely Helped Homo sapiens Resist Illness
Shawna Williams | Oct 4, 2018
Modern humans retain DNA sequences from Neanderthals related to fighting off RNA-based viruses.
Oldest Known Paintings Created by Neanderthals, Not Modern Humans
Catherine Offord | Feb 25, 2018
The animal pictures and hand stencils were made in caves in Spain thousands of years before Homo sapiens arrived in Europe.
Jawbone Fossil Suggests Humans Left Africa Earlier than Previously Believed
Shawna Williams | Jan 25, 2018
The find is estimated to be at least 177,000 years old.
Scientists Uncover Oldest Homo sapiens Fossils to Date
Diana Kwon | Jun 6, 2017
The new fossils push the origin of the human species back by 100,000 years.
Homo naledi Likely Roamed Earth with H. sapiens
Bob Grant | May 9, 2017
New research provides evidence that the ancient hominin species might not be so ancient after all.
“Out of Africa” Theory Gets the Genomic Treatment
Bob Grant | Sep 26, 2016
A trio of genetic studies on seldom-studied indigenous populations points to a single wave of migration as humanity wandered from its evolutionary homeland into the rest of the world.
New Timeline for Homo naledi
Kerry Grens | Jul 6, 2016
The ancient human may have lived around 900,000 years ago—much more recently than first estimated.
Ancient Y Chromosome Analyzed
Tanya Lewis | Apr 7, 2016
In-depth analysis of the Neanderthal Y chromosome offers insights into the ancient hominins’ split with modern humans.
Dating the Origin of Us
Ajit Varki | Nov 1, 2013
Theoretical anthropogeny seeks to understand how Homo sapiens rose to a position of global dominance.
Suspect Sasquatch Sequencing
Beth Marie Mole | Nov 28, 2012
Without publishing any data, a Texas-based forensic company claims to have sequenced the genome of Bigfoot.
Brain Evolution at a Distance
Hannah Waters | Dec 6, 2011
Gene expression controlled from afar may have spurred the spurt in brain evolution that led to modern humans.