News

Drug, Biotech Firms Beginning To Embrace Combinatorial Chemistry
Drug, Biotech Firms Beginning To Embrace Combinatorial Chemistry
Combinatorial Chemistry An emerging chemical discovery method is proving to be a fruitful source of research and job opportunities. The technique-called combinatorial chemistry-has spawned a wave of in-house pharmaceutical research and new collaboration between drug firms and biotech companies. Similar programs may also be on the horizon for agrochemical and materials science researchers. EUREKA: Ronald Zuckerman recalls Chiron's success Combinatorial chemistry shifts compound design from a
FDA Reform Debate Heating Up As Senate, House Propose Bills
FDA Reform Debate Heating Up As Senate, House Propose Bills
House Propose Bills Companies, scientists, and patient-advocacy groups all applaud the ultimate objective of recently introduced legislation designed to get effective drugs to patients more quickly. However, not everyone agrees that the current versions of the Senate and House bills to reform the Food and Drug Administration are the way to accomplish the goal. DISSENTER: Edward Kennedy (D-Mass.) voted against the Senate bill. Proponents say the bills move reform in the right direction. Mean
Lobbying Law Should Not Hinder Science Advocacy, Observers Say
Lobbying Law Should Not Hinder Science Advocacy, Observers Say
Advocacy, Observers Say conveying benefits of research. LET'S LOBBY: William Wells calls lobbying "perfectly legitimate" and urges scientists "to be at the table". Science lobbyists maintain that a new federal lobbying-reform law will not impede their advocacy efforts in Washington, D.C. What does worry them, however, is that many scientists still do not realize the importance of speaking to policy-makers and the public about the benefits of science and the importance of funding it. The Lobb
Observers Praise AIDS Report But Foresee Problems In Implementation
Observers Praise AIDS Report But Foresee Problems In Implementation
Problems In Implementation LOUD AND CLEAR: Attorney Lynda Dee stresses the need for communication among the institutes. When a federally appointed panel announced in March the results of its 15-month-long review of the United States government's AIDS research program, AIDS activists as well as scientists cheered. The National Institutes of Health's AIDS Research Program Evaluation Working Group's recommendations largely called for scrapping what the group saw as outdated and ineffective polic
The Scientist - Crossword Puzzle - May 13, 1996
The Scientist - Crossword Puzzle - May 13, 1996
By Eric Albert Email: ealbert@world.std.com ACROSS 1 Reverse transcriptase product: abbr 4 Newt's class 10 It goes from 0 to 14 11 Result of an experiment 12 Fluid-filled body cavity 13 Bleaching agent 15 Amino acid found in wool 16 Prefix for trillion 19 It's yielded by glucose glycolysis: abbr 21 The supercollider and it ilk, popularity 24 Tube protruding from the cecum 25 Product part 27 Substance not chemically separable into simpler substances 28 O, to some 29 Graviton or gluon, e.g. 30
The Scientist - Crossword Puzzle Answers - May 13, 1996
The Scientist - Crossword Puzzle Answers - May 13, 1996
By Eric Albert Email: ealbert@world.std.com ACROSS 1 Reverse transcriptase product: abbr 4 Newt's class 10 It goes from 0 to 14 11 Result of an experiment 12 Fluid-filled body cavity 13 Bleaching agent 15 Amino acid found in wool 16 Prefix for trillion 19 It's yielded by glucose glycolysis: abbr 21 The supercollider and it ilk, popularity 24 Tube protruding from the cecum 25 Product part 27 Substance not chemically separable into simpler substances 28 O, to some 29 Graviton or gluon, e.g. 30

Leaders of Science

Anne Marie Skalka
Anne Marie Skalka
Ever since college biology class, when she first prepared DNA from a cell, Anne Marie Skalka has been fascinated by its structure and function. Her main interest is in how cells maintain the structure of their genes and how they alter it to influence gene function. She recently has been working on viral systems, specifically the HIV retroviral system. Skalka has been trying to discover ways to develop therapies for HIV. She has been working with an enzyme of the virus called integrase. Integra

Opinion

D
D
21st-Century R&D In March, the president released a fiscal year 1997 budget that in many ways presages the upcoming elections. At a time when most other domestic discretionary budgets face steep cuts, science and technology funding would increase-for the fourth consecutive year under President Clinton. The reasons why he asked again for increases in basic research, in key technology programs, and in science and technology linked with education, environment, and health speak eloquently about

Commentary

Lobbying Law Should Not Deter Researchers From Speaking Out On Behalf Of Science
Lobbying Law Should Not Deter Researchers From Speaking Out On Behalf Of Science
From Speaking Out On Behalf Of Science At the end of 1995, the United States Congress enacted a new lobbying law, replacing a hodgepodge of vague disclosure requirements adopted over the previous 40 years. The intent of the new law is to provide the public with an accurate listing of the people and organizations involved in lobbying and a general accounting of funds expended on such activities. As research institutions consider their responsibilities under the new law, faculty and administrato

Letter

A Career Is Finished Before It Starts
A Career Is Finished Before It Starts
Science is like a professional sport. Both are played by young people and managed by older people no longer capable of playing. In sport the inability of older people to play is so obvious that they do not expect or try to do so. Someone entering pro sports knows that his or her high-paying career will be short. A few will stay on as managers or lower-status, non-playing auxiliaries, but most will leave the sport entirely. Scientists are now being involuntarily retired at about the same age as
Scientists As Politicians
Scientists As Politicians
I would like to respond to your article in the April 15 issue on scientists and physicians in Congress [T.W. Durso, page 1]. I do not disagree with the contention that we do need more scientists in Congress who can explain the workings of scientific research and the need for it to other members of Congress and educate them. However, these individuals, as other members, vote on a whole variety of issues that arise during the course of their tenure. Thus, it is not enough to list their credentia
Growth Of Bioethics
Growth Of Bioethics
Brian Everill (The Scientist, April 1, 1996, page 13) errs twice in his reply to my letter of Feb. 5, 1996 [page 13] on cooperation between scientists and bioethicists. First, by extracting a clause and a phrase from my letter, then combining them in inverse order, he creates a pseudoquotation. What I actually wrote was " . . . just as bioethicists must learn the scientific facts about a subject before venturing ethical pronouncements on that subject, scientists ought to learn something about e

Research

Neurogastroenterologists Combine Old And New Research Approaches
Neurogastroenterologists Combine Old And New Research Approaches
New Research Approaches Increasing interest in the innervation of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract has led to the emergence of neurogastroenterology, a field that weds classic anatomy and physiology with contemporary neuroscience. The field has roots reaching back to Pavlov's dogs. Today, however, like other biomedical sciences, its researchers take a more molecular approach, tracking the neurons of the gut and the neurotransmitters and neuropeptides that they release. LANDMARK FINDING: Micha

Hot Paper

Cancer Genetics
Cancer Genetics
Edited by Steven Benowitz R.A. Steinman, B. Hoffman, A. Iro, C. Guillouf, D.A. Liebermann, M.E. Elhouseini, "Induction of p21 (WAF1/CIP1) during differentiation," Oncogene, 9:3389-96, 1994. (Cited in more than 40 publications as of February 1996) Comments by Richard A. Steinman, University of Pittsburgh Cancer Institute. CELL CYCLIST: Richard Steinman's cell differentiation research may provide clues to cancer development Richard A. Steinman, an assistant professor of medicine at the Unive
Immunology
Immunology
T.L. Walunas, D.J. Lenschow, C.Y. Bakker, P.S. Linsley, G.J Freeman, J.M. Green, C.B. Thompson, J.A. Bluestone, "CTLA-4 can function as a negative regulator of T-cell activation," Immunity, 1:405-13, 1994. (Cited in more than 40 publications as of February 1996) Comments by Jeffrey A. Bluestone, University of Chicago, and Craig B. Thompson, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, University of Chicago TURN-OFF:Jeffrey Bluestone hopes to understand how the immune system shuts itself down. In this

Profession

Scientific Culture From Coast To Coast: Are There Standard Deviations?
Scientific Culture From Coast To Coast: Are There Standard Deviations?
Standard Deviations? Perhaps you dream of someday defending your groundbreaking thesis on the formulation of high-temperature superconductors while reclining in a frothing hot tub. Or maybe you picture yourself as a high-powered principal investigator who runs a lab with military precision and wears a tie, keeping it firmly knotted even after the last grad student has called it a night. MIGRANT: Rob Elia has seen science on both coasts. Of course, when you're looking to settle down to a life

Technology

User-Friendly Software Makes Molecular Modeling A Virtual Reality
User-Friendly Software Makes Molecular Modeling A Virtual Reality
Modeling A Virtual Reality Researchers who work with biomolecules such as proteins and nucleic acids often design and perform experiments on "invisible" substances. Unlike organismal or cell biologists, who can view specimens through microscopes, scientists who investigate properties of macromolecules can't see the material they study. But how do molecular biologists who investigate DNA, for example, routinely make inferences based on a three-dimensional structure that has never really been see

Notebook

Notebook
Notebook
The past several weeks have been busy ones for the genomics crowd. Genome scientists from around the world can now lay claim to having determined the entire genetic blueprint for five free-living species, including brewer's yeast, the most complex creature tackled thus far. Late last month, scientists from a European-led consortium of more than 70 international labs released the yeast sequence. The genome of Saccharomyces cerevisiae is the first organism with a distinct nucleus, or eukaryote, t