A microscope image of Legionellales bacteria infecting a protozoan
Ancestral Bacteria May Have Invaded Early Eukaryotic Cells
The discovery that a group of cell-infecting bacteria lived roughly 2 billion years ago stirs a longstanding controversy around which came first: phagocytosis or mitochondria.
Ancestral Bacteria May Have Invaded Early Eukaryotic Cells
Ancestral Bacteria May Have Invaded Early Eukaryotic Cells

The discovery that a group of cell-infecting bacteria lived roughly 2 billion years ago stirs a longstanding controversy around which came first: phagocytosis or mitochondria.

The discovery that a group of cell-infecting bacteria lived roughly 2 billion years ago stirs a longstanding controversy around which came first: phagocytosis or mitochondria.

Molecular clock
A bar of milk chocolate with the foil peeled back and a bite taken out
Q&A: Eating Milk Chocolate in the Morning Boosts Fat Metabolism
Amanda Heidt | Jun 30, 2021
A study of 19 postmenopausal women found that eating a bar of chocolate in the morning affected their bodies differently than eating it at night, but neither led to weight gain.
Malaria Parasites’ Biological Clocks Coordinate Cell Destruction
Abby Olena | May 14, 2020
Two studies show that Plasmodium—the genus of protozoans that cause malaria—have an internal sense of time that synchronizes with their host’s circadian rhythms and allows the parasites to collectively attack blood cells.
Ribosomal DNA Can Predict an Animal’s Age
Abby Olena | Feb 14, 2019
A clock constructed of rDNA methylation sites can estimate both chronological and biological age across species.
Fly’s Blood-Brain Barrier Has Circadian Rhythms
Abby Olena | Mar 8, 2018
In Drosophila, the tissue is more permeable to drugs at night, offering a possible explanation for why some medicines work better at certain times of day.
How to Tell a Person’s “Brain Age”
Diana Kwon | May 21, 2017
Using brain scans and methylation markers, scientists develop ways to assess neurologic aging in humans.
Gut Microbes Influence Circadian Clock
Anna Azvolinsky | Apr 16, 2015
Metabolites produced by gut microbes in mice can affect the animals’ circadian rhythm and metabolism. 
Triglyceride Clock
Abby Olena | Feb 10, 2014
The timing of meals affects the levels of lipids in the livers of mice, according to a study.
Out of Sync
Kerry Grens | Sep 1, 2013
Why eating at the wrong times is tied to such profound and negative effects on our bodies
Mind the Clock
Kerry Grens | Aug 31, 2013
Many of the body's tissues can tell time, and these peripheral clocks can be influenced by environmental cues, such as the timing of food consumption.
In Evolution's Garden
Megan Scudellari | Jun 1, 2013
Raising one evolutionary question after another, Brandon Gaut has harvested a crop of novel findings about how plant genomes evolve.