germinal center inside a lymph node
Booster Is Best in the Same Limb as Initial Vaccine: Mouse Study
Compared to mice who got the doses in separate limbs, animals receiving flu shots in the same paw for both a first and second dose had better-trained memory B cells that bound tighter to the vaccine antigen.
Booster Is Best in the Same Limb as Initial Vaccine: Mouse Study
Booster Is Best in the Same Limb as Initial Vaccine: Mouse Study

Compared to mice who got the doses in separate limbs, animals receiving flu shots in the same paw for both a first and second dose had better-trained memory B cells that bound tighter to the vaccine antigen.

Compared to mice who got the doses in separate limbs, animals receiving flu shots in the same paw for both a first and second dose had better-trained memory B cells that bound tighter to the vaccine antigen.

B cell
chemical visualization of a G-quadruplex
Strange DNA Structures Linked to Cancer
Sophie Fessl | Jan 19, 2022
A study reveals a connection between the loss of enzymes responsible for removing methyl groups from DNA, nucleic acid knots, and cancer development in mice.
Illustration of the BCG vaccine and resulting immune response
Infographic: TB Vaccines in the Pipeline Take Varied Approaches
Anthony King | Jul 1, 2021
More than a dozen vaccines for tuberculosis are currently being tested in clinical trials. Some use whole bacteria as BCG does, while others deliver protein subunits or genetic material carried by viral vectors.  
LabTalk Podcast - Predicting the Immune Response with Single-Cell Analysis: Autoimmunity, Vaccination, and COVID-19
The Scientist Creative Services Team and 10x Genomics
Researchers identify signatures that predict how a person will respond to an immune system stimulus.
False-colored micrograph of Mycobacterium tuberculosis
Tuberculosis: The Forgotten Pandemic
Anthony King | Jul 1, 2021
This month marks the 100-year anniversary of BCG, still the only approved vaccine against the lethal pathogen. But there are new vaccines for this wily foe on the horizon.
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Pfizer Vaccine Induces Immune Structures Key to Lasting Immunity
Katarina Zimmer | Mar 25, 2021
In the armpit lymph nodes of people who had received the mRNA vaccine against SARS-CoV-2, researchers found germinal centers needed to generate long-lived antibody-making cells.
Investigating the Immune Response Using Advanced Flow Cytometry
The Scientist Creative Services Team
Discover how researchers are using flow cytometry to delve into the inner workings of the immune life cycle!
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COVID-19 More Deadly with Blood than Solid Cancer: Study
Marcus A. Banks | Feb 16, 2021
Death rates among blood cancer patients who contract COVID-19 are higher than for those with other cancers, pointing to impaired immunity that makes it hard to overcome the virus.
Immunity to SARS-CoV-2 Lasts at Least Six Months, Data Show
Ashley Yeager | Nov 23, 2020
Half a year after infection, people who had recovered from COVID-19 had robust antibodies, along with traces of the virus in their gut, which may drive long-lasting immunity.
SARS-CoV-2 Antibody Durability
The Scientist Creative Services Team
Experts will discuss their research on SARS-CoV-2 antibody persistence and immune memory in recovered COVID-19 patients and the implications for protective immunity.
Common Cold Coronaviruses Tied to Less Severe COVID-19 Cases
Anthony King | Nov 11, 2020
Outcomes in COVID-19 patients may be better in those recently infected with endemic coronaviruses. 
germinal centers antibody antibodies covid-19 sars-cov-2 pandemic coronavirus immunity
Some COVID-19 Patients Lack Key Structures for Antibody Creation
Katarina Zimmer | Aug 25, 2020
An absence of germinal centers—which arise during infections to produce long-lived antibody-generating cells—might explain rapidly waning antibody levels in the disease.
Regulator of Mysterious Gut Antibodies Identified
Ruth Williams | Jul 31, 2020
A B-cell receptor critical for the production of a subset of intestinal antibodies has been pinpointed, but the function of those antibodies remains unclear.
t cell b cell covid-19 coronavirus pandemic sars-cov-2 immune response innate immunity adaptive immunity antibodies antibody cd8+
The Search for Immune Responses that Stop COVID-19
Chris Baraniuk | Jul 24, 2020
Scientists are examining the role of T cells, which are likely crucial for long-term protection against SARS-CoV-2.
bcg tuberculosis tb sars-cov-2 covid-19 coronavirus pandemic vaccine nonspecific effects trained immunity innate immune system response
An Old TB Vaccine Finds New Life in Coronavirus Trials
Anthony King | May 4, 2020
Studies are underway to test whether giving a shot of BCG vaccine could protect doctors and nurses against COVID-19.
Special Report
antibody coronavirus covid-19 sars-cov-2 immunity passport b cell plasmablast serology serum blood test
What Do Antibody Tests For SARS-CoV-2 Tell Us About Immunity?
Katarina Zimmer | Apr 15, 2020
Studies from serum samples could transform our understanding of the spread of COVID-19, but what antibodies alone say about immunity is not yet clear.
coronavirus covid-19 sars-cov-2 antibodies plasma therapy b cells monkey macaques
Monkeys Develop Protective Antibodies to SARS-CoV-2
Katarina Zimmer | Mar 17, 2020
A small study of macaques finds they don’t develop a coronavirus infection the second time they are exposed, supporting the idea of using plasma from recovered patients as a treatment for COVID-19.
Laskers Go to Immunologists, Developers of Breast Cancer Therapy
Jef Akst | Sep 10, 2019
The 2019 Lasker medical and research awards celebrate advances in scientists’ understanding of T and B cells, Herceptin antibodies for treating breast cancer, and vaccine coverage around the globe.
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Novel Type of Immune Cell Discovered in Type 1 Diabetes Patients
Katarina Zimmer | May 30, 2019
A rogue hybrid lymphocyte, bearing characteristics of both B and T cells, may play a role in driving autoimmunity in the disease, although the mechanism is far from clear.
b cell crispr immunity rsv respiratory syncitial virus
CRISPRed B Cells Produce Antibodies Against Hard-to-Treat Viruses
Katarina Zimmer | May 17, 2019
In line with previous research, a new study in mice demonstrates that B cells can be engineered to ward off infections, this time against respiratory syncytial virus (RSV).