Genetic knockout experiments reveal a role for the protein in forming and maintaining synapses between motor neurons and muscle fibers in mice.
Infographic: Vangl2 in Muscles Keeps Neuromuscular Junctions Organized
Genetic knockout experiments reveal a role for the protein in forming and maintaining synapses between motor neurons and muscle fibers in mice.
Infographic: Vangl2 in Muscles Keeps Neuromuscular Junctions Organized
Infographic: Vangl2 in Muscles Keeps Neuromuscular Junctions Organized

Genetic knockout experiments reveal a role for the protein in forming and maintaining synapses between motor neurons and muscle fibers in mice.

Genetic knockout experiments reveal a role for the protein in forming and maintaining synapses between motor neurons and muscle fibers in mice.

infographic
Illustration showing assembly Versus Alignment
Infographic: The Sequencing and Assembly of the Human Genome
Brianna Chrisman and Jordan Eizenga | Sep 1, 2022
With ever-advancing genetic technologies, researchers continue to document the genetic code of the human species.
To flag neurons that have experienced genotoxic stress, researchers developed an in vivo sensor using an adeno-associated viral vector, called PRISM. Because a cell’s DNA damage response (DDR)—which activates in response to stressors such as environmental toxins or the buildup of misfolded proteins—also responds to invading pathogens, PRISM has an easier time transfecting cells whose damage response mechanisms are preoccupied with existing DNA damage. Once inside, the virus hijacks the neuron’s DNA replication machinery, which reverts an engineered frameshift mutation in the virus and thereby prompts the production of a fluorescent protein that can be observed via microscopy.
Infographic: DNA Damage Viewed with Unprecedented Clarity
Amanda Heidt | Aug 15, 2022
A new genetic sensor called PRISM makes use of a host cell’s DNA replication machinery to trigger fluorescence in neurons with damaged DNA.
Mind the Graph
Seeing Science: How to Visually Explain Complex Concepts
The Scientist Creative Services Team and Mind the Graph
Scientists turn to an easy, plug-and-play platform to visually translate their work.
Vaccine illustration 
Infographic: Inducing Active Immunity Against Opioid Overdose
Tori Rodriguez | Jun 13, 2022
How scientists aim to induce an immune response against addictive drugs
Infographic showing how bursting micronuclei promote cancer
Infographic: Chromosome Errors Cause Micronuclei and Drive Cancer
Samuel F. Bakhoum | Mar 1, 2022
When micronuclei rupture, chromosomes break, recombine, and form circles, causing inflammation and promoting carcinogenic growth.
Illustration of a DNA-peptide conjugate molecule being pulled through a nanopore in a membrane.
Infographic: Reading Proteins with Nanopores
Sophie Fessl | Feb 14, 2022
Adapting DNA nanopore sequencing to peptides allows researchers to identify single amino acid differences.
Infographic showing endogenous adenosine enzymes acting on RNA (ADARs) edit genetic material in the cell by attaching to naturally occurring double-stranded RNAs, including mRNAs, and switching out A bases with I bases (left). Therapeutic RNA editing platforms based on this mechanism fall into one of two categories: either they use engineered enzymes, which generally consist of the editing part of the ADAR enzyme attached to another protein such as Cas13 that boosts specificity, alongside a guide RNA that targets the enzyme to the desired location (middle); or they consist of a guide RNA alone, which recruits an endogenous ADAR to edit the target sequence (right).
Infographic: RNA Editing Approaches
Christie Wilcox | Dec 1, 2021
RNA editing platforms leverage the natural activity of ADAR enzymes to make key changes to messenger RNAs before they are translated into proteins.
Illustration showing how seagull chicks know when predators are lurking
Infographic: Animal Embryos Coopt Sound to Survive and Thrive
Amanda Heidt | Nov 1, 2021
Across the tree of life, animals use sound and other vibrations to glean valuable sensory information about their environments even before they are born.
Illustration showing the bodily systems affected by Long COVID
Infographic: Bodily Systems Affected by Long COVID
Sruthi S. Balakrishnan | Sep 1, 2021
Symptoms documented in cases of long COVID are wide ranging and variable.
Infographic: How Pregnancy Changes Fat Tissue
Catherine Offord | Aug 1, 2021
Researchers propose a mechanism by which a protein produced in the placenta may trigger blood vessel growth and enlarge fat cells.
Infographic: How Scientists Are Creating Coral Cell Lines
Amanda Heidt | Jul 1, 2021
Stable, long-term cell lines will enable scientists to study everything from coral bleaching to biomineralization, knowledge that may help protect corals from ongoing climate change.
panel depicting mossy fiber synapses and glutamate signaling dynamics
Infographic: Reverse Signaling Between Neurons
Christie Wilcox | Jun 4, 2021
So-called mossy fiber synapses in the hippocampus can meter the amount of neurotransmitter they receive by sending glutamate against the usual direction of synaptic flow.
illustration of how slow-growing and fast-growing fungi grow through a narrow channel
Infographic: How Fungi Squeeze Through Tight Spaces—or Don’t
Catherine Offord | Jun 1, 2021
A study finds that slower-growing species are better able to adjust their growth to fit their hyphae through narrow passages.
Infographic: How to Ferret Out SARS-CoV-2 in Sewage
Ruth Williams | May 1, 2021
Researchers use magnetic nanoparticles and liquid-handling robots in an effort to detect COVID-19 outbreaks early.
Infographic: Envisioning Macrophages
Ashley Yeager | Mar 1, 2021
Researchers find different distributions of the immune cells in young, older, and diseased eyes.
Infographic: A Plant Cell’s Cuticle Helps Regulate Toxic Chemical Accumulation
Ashley Yeager | Feb 1, 2021
Researchers found that thinning petunia cells’ cuticles caused them to slow production of volatile organic compounds.
Infographic: Light Triggers Photocage Opening, Apoptosis Inhibition
Jef Akst | Jan 1, 2021
Researchers develop a caspase inhibitor that only works after being irradiated with UV light, giving them control over apoptosis in human cells.
Light-Activated Molecules Stop Apoptosis at the Flip of a Switch
Jef Akst | Jan 1, 2021
A new inhibitor gives researchers the ability to control programmed cell death in cultured human T cells.
Editor’s Picks of The Scientist’s Best Infographics of 2020
Jef Akst | Dec 15, 2020
This year’s most captivating illustrations tell stories from the micro scale—such as newborn neurons in the adult brain and bacteria in the infant gut—to the scale of entire ecosystems, including reintroduced predators and rising seas.