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Supplement: Pain and Promise
Supplement: Pain and Promise
Pain and PromiseAutoimmune diseases lack the sledgehammer impact, and therefore the instant recognition, of our other great medical afflictions such as cancer and heart disease. But as the vivid patient testimonies on pages 6-15 illustrate, they are worthy of notoriety. Insidious and nasty, difficult to diagnose, perplexing to treat, bewildering for patients to understand, and painful to live with, autoimmunity presents a series of daunting challenges. First, there's the sheer number of condi
Supplement: The Diseases
Supplement: The Diseases
The Diseases Autoimmunity is transformed from an esoteric scientific challenge by the daily reality of millions of patients. So we begin with a description of the impact of autoimmune disease on patients, their families, society and healthcare systems. The depth of the challenges that underlie autoimmune diseases come through in painfully clear ways in the series of patient profiles starting on the next page. As described by Stephen
Supplement: The Art of Adapting to MS
Supplement: The Art of Adapting to MS
The Art of Adapting to MS By Kirsten Weir © Matthew Robbins Maggie McPhersun stands in front of a canvas that she painted, a whimsical print of swirling lines and bright colors. Completing it, she says, was "incredibly painful emotionally." McPhersun, 51, is a registered nurse from Brunswick, Maine. She's also an artist, and she once took commissions, painting intricate portraits - before multiple scle
Supplement: Crash Course with Rheumatoid Arthritis
Supplement: Crash Course with Rheumatoid Arthritis
Crash Course with Rheumatoid Arthritis By Juhi Yajnik © Courtesy of the Daily Press In 1987, Beverly Williams began a battle with rheumatoid arthritis. Williams was a 22-year-old newspaper reporter, fresh out of Virginia Tech, when her hands started to hurt. Her doctor sent her to a specialist who diagnosed rheumatoid arthritis. She took the news lightly. "But if I knew then, what I know now," she says
Supplement: The Trials of Keeping Track
Supplement: The Trials of Keeping Track
1 on the epidemiology of autoimmune diseases, perhaps the most detailed publication on the topic so far. That report shows that in the more common conditions, such as MS, the imbalance tilts so that affected patients are roughly two-thirds female. "In some diseases, however, the degree of disproportion is very extreme," Cooper says. For example, at least 85% of patients with thyroiditis, systemic sclerosis, systemic lupus erythematosus, and Sjögren disease are female. In data from the Cent
On the panda trail
On the panda trail
On the Panda Trail In our May issue, contributor Jerry Guo traveled to the Wolong Nature Reserve in China's Sichuan Province to learn what researchers there are doing to increase the panda population. Here, see the pandas at play - and what they leave behind. var FO = { movie:"http://images.the-scientist.com/supplementary/flash/53136/panda.swf", width:"552", height:"600", majorversion:"8", build:"0", xi:"true"}; UFO.create(FO, "ufoDemo"); Please download the Adobe Flash
Supplement: Assessing the Cost of Rheumatoid Arthritis
Supplement: Assessing the Cost of Rheumatoid Arthritis
Assessing the Cost of Rheumatoid Arthritis ARTICLE EXTRAS The Trials of Keeping Track In England and Wales, rheumatoid arthritis (RA) affects approximately 400,000 people, or 0.5-1% of the population. Those figures come from the "Final Appraisal Determination: Adalimumab, Etanercept, and Infliximab for the Treatment of Rheumatoid Arthritis," published in November last year, by the National Institute for Health and Clini
Slideshow: Stem cells for laughs
Slideshow: Stem cells for laughs
Slideshow: Stem cells for laughs Presenting last at the end of a five day conference can be a drag. Follow some slides from a talk at a recent Keystone meeting on reproduction to see how Tilo Kunath keeps the audience?s interest up. var FO = { movie:"http://images.the-scientist.com/supplementary/flash/53155/funnies.swf", width:"552", height:"600", majorversion:"8", build:"0", xi:"true"}; UFO.create(FO, "ufoDemo"); Please download the Adobe Flash Player to view this con
Audio Slideshow: The Parasites of Beaver Pond
Audio Slideshow: The Parasites of Beaver Pond
Audio Slideshow: The Parasites of Beaver Pond Tom Raffel of Penn State's Center for Infectious Disease Dynamics takes writer Brendan Borrell on a trip to Beaver Pond where the parasites are jumping. var FO = { movie:"http://images.the-scientist.com/supplementary/flash/53152/cidd.swf", width:"550", height:"511", majorversion:"8", build:"0", xi:"true"}; UFO.create(FO, "ufoDemo"); Please download the Adobe Flash Player to view this content:
Supplement: A Balanced Attack
Supplement: A Balanced Attack
1 Consequently, immunologists adjusted their focus from trying to determine why autoreactive cells escape deletion to exploring how the immune system maintains a homeostatic balance and why it sometimes fails. It seems clear that understanding this balance - a peaceful coexistence of protective immunity without self-destructing - will reveal how the immune system really works and how autoimmunity is triggered. The challenge resides in the comple
A New Dynamic
A New Dynamic
A New Dynamic With an eye toward host-pathogen interactions, can a Penn State center predict and prevent the next pandemic? By Brendan Borrell ARTICLE EXTRAS 1 "Our vision really is to have a systems approach to disease," says Hudson. "Issues that go from intracellular interactions between viruses and cells right the way through to pandemics, something we call the protein-to-pandemic link." Pathogens don't just interact, they evol
Evolving Epidemiology
Evolving Epidemiology
Evolving Epidemiology ARTICLE EXTRAS 1 Epidemic patterns are largely determined by the time course of an infection, whether it's measured in days, weeks, or years. Phylogenetic patterns result from an interaction between natural selection mediated by the immune system (and/or drug treatments) and random epidemiological processes. Here's how some common pandemics play out. Measles is a highly conta
Supplement: The Role of B Cells in Rheumatoid Arthritis
Supplement: The Role of B Cells in Rheumatoid Arthritis
1 For example, indicators of RA include the presence of rheumatoid factor (RF) and antibodies against citrullinated peptides (anti-CCP), which point toward a central role of activated B cells and plasma cells producing autoreactive immunoglobulin. In the last few years, basic and clinical research have shown that B cells can affect RA in many ways. In affected tissues of autoimmune patients, lymphoid follicles with germinal centers (GCs) - the so-called tertiary lymphoid structures - fr
Supplement: Recent Advances in IL-6 Related to Autoimmunity
Supplement: Recent Advances in IL-6 Related to Autoimmunity
1 Similarly, Estelle Bettelli of the center for neurological diseases at Brigham and Women's Hospital in Boston and her colleagues showed that TGF ß -transgenic mice had increased numbers of Th17 cells and more severe autoimmune diseases. 2 These results clearly demonstrated that TGF ß is essential for the induction of Th17 cells. But more important, papers recently published have shown that IL-6 promotes the development of Th17 cells and that anti-IL-6 antibody almost complete
Healthy Antagonism
Healthy Antagonism
Healthy Antagonism ARTICLE EXTRAS 1 Just a year ago, Peter Hudson, who helped develop the center, invited Poss to come to CIDD. "You want me to come for a seminar?" Poss asked. "No, no," she recalls him saying. "We want you to come." She's already having an impact. At a recent lab meeting, Hudson's postdoc, Sarah Perkins, was presenting an idea to test how an intestinal worm and a respiratory bacterium, Bordete
Watching the Brain Lie
Watching the Brain Lie
Watching the Brain Lie Can fMRI replace the polygraph? By Ishani Ganguli ARTICLE EXTRAS A History in Deception Anatomy of Lying Amanda lies flat on her back, clad in a steel blue hospital gown and an air of anticipation, as she is rolled headfirst into a beeping, 10-ton functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) unit. Once inside, the 20-something blonde uses a handheld device to respond to questions about the playing cards a
A History in Deception
A History in Deception
A History in Deception The polygraph has long been plagued by questions By Ishani Ganguli ARTICLE EXTRAS Watching the Brain Lie Anatomy of Lying The polygraph-developed in the 1920s by John Larson, a Berkeley, Calif., policeman with a PhD in physiology-relies on the notion that people get nervous when they lie. A subject is strapped to a chair by wires and cuffs on his arm, chest, and fingers, and the "lie detector" marks his v
Anatomy of Lying
Anatomy of Lying
Anatomy of Lying Is there a "deception center" in the brain?By Ishani Ganguli ARTICLE EXTRAS Watching the Brain Lie A History in Deception By some estimates, deception evolved in primates 12 million years ago; and as primate species' neocortices grew, so did the frequency of their lies. In humans, learning how to lie, and how to detect lies, is a natural part of childhood development, studies sho
Supplement: Ultraviolet Light and Dermatomyositis
Supplement: Ultraviolet Light and Dermatomyositis
Ultraviolet Light and Dermatomyositis ARTICLE EXTRAS Too Much to Untangle Ultraviolet Light and Lupus Drugs, Diet, and Lupus Smoking and Rheumatoid Arthritis Iodine and Autoimmune Thyroid Disease Dermatomyositis is a connective-tissue disease that is characterized by inflammation of the skin and the muscles. Exposure to sunlight, either occupationally or recreationally, is anecdotally associa
Supplement: Iodine and Autoimmune Thyroid Diseases
Supplement: Iodine and Autoimmune Thyroid Diseases
Iodine and Autoimmune Thyroid Diseases ARTICLE EXTRAS Too Much to Untangle Ultraviolet Light and Lupus Drugs, Diet, and Lupus Smoking and Rheumatoid Arthritis Ultraviolet Light and Dermatomyositis A number of clinical and epidemiological studies suggest that the incidence of autoimmune thyroid diseases (AITDs), such as Hashimoto thyroiditis and Graves disease, goes up as dietary iodine increas
The Importance of Imaging
The Importance of Imaging
The Importance of Imaging ARTICLE EXTRAS To Build a Killing Machine A selected list of oncolytic viruses in clinical trials Moments after being injected with a tagged virus, the entire body of a mouse glows under specialized cameras designed to pick up light emanating from deep beneath the skin. Over time the light becomes concentrated to a few key spots. These are the tumors where the virus, a strain of vaccinia, is replicating
How pharmacogenomics might help addiction treatment
How pharmacogenomics might help addiction treatment
Naltrexone Molecule How pharmacogenomics might help addiction treatment 20 years ago, scientists got hooked on a single transcription factor that responds to a number of drugs of abuse. Will their work lead to treatments? By Kerry Grens ARTICLE EXTRAS 1 In 2003 David Oslin and Charles O'Brien at the University of Pennsylvania's Center for Addiction Treatment and their colleagues reported an association between this SNP and how well
Supplement: Innovative Treatments
Supplement: Innovative Treatments
Innovative Treatments Autoimmune disease has been a therapeutic backwater. No longer. A collection of innovative therapies is now coming onstream. Anne Harding covers therapies targeted at T-cell mechanisms (Click here), and Pamela Gannon explores compounds aimed at B-cell and interleukin-6 pathways and receptors (Click here). Also included is a look back over the history of approaches to battling autoimmunity. Andrew M. Chan of Genentech
Supplement: Fine-Tuning Our Defenses
Supplement: Fine-Tuning Our Defenses
1 Nonetheless, treatment probably won't involve blocking any one pathway entirely. Instead, the best treatments will make slight modifications in several places. "The future is really novel pathways - to interact with novel pathways that offer the opportunity for different types of responses," says Brian Kotzin, vice president of medical sciences at Amgen in Thousand Oaks, Calif. Billions of Data Points Despite the potential undesirable con
Best Places to Work in Industry, 2007
Best Places to Work in Industry, 2007
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Best Places to Work 2007: Top 30 Companies
Best Places to Work 2007: Top 30 Companies
Best Places to Work in Industry 2007: Top 30 Companies Use the interactive chart below to sort the top ranked institutions by category. Resize the rows or scroll within the chart to view category. Click here to view the printable PDF. // create ActiveWidgets data model - CSV text table var table = new AW.CSV.Table; // provide data URL - plain text comma-separated file table.setURL("/supplementary/csv/53161/top30_07.csv"); // start asyncronous data retrieval ta
Best Places to Work in Industry 2007 Results PDF
Best Places to Work in Industry 2007 Results PDF
Best Places to Work in Industry 2007 Results PDF ARTICLE EXTRAS The Little Company That Can Sandoz stands out Top 30 Companies Top Large Companies Top Small Companies Most Important Factors Top Companies on the Most Important Factors Categories Best Places to Work: Survey Findings PDF
Top Companies on the Most Important Factors Categories
Top Companies on the Most Important Factors Categories
Best Places to Work in Industry 2007: Top Companies on the Most Important Factors Categories Use the interactive chart below to sort the top ranked institutions by category. Resize the rows or scroll within the chart to view category. Click here to view the printable PDF. // create ActiveWidgets data model - CSV text table var table = new AW.CSV.Table; // provide data URL - plain text comma-separated file table.setURL("/supplementary/csv/53161/topCoFactors.csv");
Most Important Factors
Most Important Factors
Best Places to Work in Industry 2007: Most Important Factors Use the interactive chart below to sort the top ranked institutions by category. Resize the rows or scroll within the chart to view category. Click here to view the printable PDF. // create ActiveWidgets data model - CSV text table var table = new AW.CSV.Table; // provide data URL - plain text comma-separated file table.setURL("/supplementary/csv/53161/mostImpFactors.csv"); // start asyncronous data re
Making Conservation Make Sense
Making Conservation Make Sense
Making Conservation Make Sense If it weren't for hurricanes, Les Kaufman might be studying something completely different today. By Karen Hopkin Jason Varney | VarneyPhoto.com Les Kaufman claims his interest in science might have begun in utero. "I remember at age 3, I got a book about the moon," he says. "At about 4, my father started bringing home herpetiles: frogs and turtles and things f
Supplement: Historical Highlights in Therapies
Supplement: Historical Highlights in Therapies
Historical Highlights in Therapies Autoimmune diseases stretch far back into the history of humans. Related illnesses even exist in nonhuman primates, such as the baboon model of Chaga's disease. Treatments for human autoimmune diseases have also been around for ages, or at least centuries. In the late 1600s, physicians treated RA with Peruvian bark, which contains quinine. A century later, physician
Supplement: A Bonanza of B-Cell Therapies
Supplement: A Bonanza of B-Cell Therapies
1 B-Cell Depletion Edwards and his colleagues began to explore the use of B-cell depletion therapy. "Our basic research on cellular interaction in RA indicated that it ought to work, so we tried it," says Edwards. His group used rituximab. The antibody binds to the CD20 receptor, which is expressed on the surface of B cells throughout most stages of B-cell maturation. The drug most likely causes destruction of the B cells by a combination of antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxi
Supplement: Moving from Prediction to Prevention
Supplement: Moving from Prediction to Prevention
Moving from Prediction to Prevention By Noel R. Rose Preventing autoimmune diseases is still a long way off, but it's a goal worth pursuing. © Bill McAllen Photography For me, the dream began in the early 1960s. As a medical student, I was helping with the care of a 16-year-old girl who had classical Hashimoto thyroiditis, a disease that more commonly occurs among middle-aged women. I guessed that this
Supplement: Organizations for Autoimmune Diseases
Supplement: Organizations for Autoimmune Diseases
Organizations for Autoimmune DiseasesThis sampling of international associations, foundations, and societies focused on various autoimmune diseases reveals the group efforts that benefit patients and researchers. Although many other organizations exist, the ones listed here provide informative Web sites with frequent updates. American Autoimmune Related Diseases Associationwww.aarda.org AARDA pursues the eradication of autoimmune diseases, as well as the alleviation
Life Science Industry Awards 2007
Life Science Industry Awards 2007
Life Science Industry Awards 2007 Saluting the winners: Customization, value, and customer service is the name of the game. By Andrea Gawrylewski, Bob Grant, and Manasee Wagh Although biomedical companies in search of new drugs often seem to grab all the headlines, anyone working in bioscience research and drug development knows that none of their advances would be possible without the life science industry that creates the rea

Notebook

The Agenda
The Agenda
LINNAEUS TERCENTENNIAL>> Swedish naturalist Carl Linnaeus would have turned 300 this month. Sweden is hosting a number of celebrations, including a Linnean garden at the Chelsea Garden Show, a Festival of Love, and bike rides through Swedish regions that inspired the Father of Taxonomy. Pick your favorite event at www.linnaeus2007.se/. TREE SPREE>> China is planting a 2,800-mile for
Year of the Panda
Year of the Panda
Related Articles Slideshow: On the panda trail On a March afternoon, there are so many pandas in the ?kindergarten pen? at Wolong Nature Reserve in China?s Sichuan Province, it?s hard to keep track of their antics. One is attempting a handstand while three others are playing king of the hill. These carefree cubs ? a record 19 from Wolong?s 2006 breeding season ? are part of the dramatic comeback for a symbol of conservation: the giant panda. The toddlers may one day follow Xiangxi
The Green Wall of China
The Green Wall of China
With the Beijing Olympics just a year away, and desert dunes now only 150 miles away from the city, officials have been dreaming big when it comes to battling legendary Chinese sandstorms in the capital and across the country?s arid north. In 2001, the government approved a new phase of an $8 billion antidesertification campaign, stretching from the capital to Inner Mongolia. The 4,500 kilometer shelterbelt ? with 25 million hectares of trees planted and
Stem Cell Funnies
Stem Cell Funnies
Tilo Kunath, a research fellow at the University of Edinburgh, found himself chatting with an older gentleman next to him. That had the potential to be sticky: Kunath works with embryonic and extraembryonic stem cell lines, and his work sometimes requires the destruction of human embryos. His traveling companion wasn't exactly quiet about his more socially conservative views.
Gene therapy for Fido
Gene therapy for Fido
Plasmid GHRH delivery in a dog. Credit: Courtesy of Patricia Brown" />Plasmid GHRH delivery in a dog. Credit: Courtesy of Patricia Brown A few months after arriving at Baylor College of Medicine in 1995, Ruxandra Draghia-Akli, an assistant professor, adopted an abandoned Jack Russell terrier she found at the cafeteria. Baylor, named for the school, is one of two dogs that Draghia-Akli has lost to cancer in the past six years, and watching his decline was taxing. ?He

Column

The Tales Pollen Tells
The Tales Pollen Tells
The rise of forensic palynology, a once obscure science.

Books etc.

Auxin Receptor Hides in Plain Sight
Auxin Receptor Hides in Plain Sight
Long hunt for auxin receptors turns up the F-box protein TIR1 and a novel mechanism.

Hot Paper

Translocon language
Translocon language
Credit: Reprinted by permission of Macmillian Publishers, LTD." /> Credit: Reprinted by permission of Macmillian Publishers, LTD. The paper: T. Hessa et al., ?Recognition of transmembrane helices by the endoplasmic reticulum translocon,? Nature, 433:377?81, 2005. (Cited in 88 papers) The finding: Gunnar von Heijn
Birth of an miRNA
Birth of an miRNA
The paper: X. Cai et al., ?Human microRNAs are processed from capped, polyadenylated transcripts that can also function as mRNAs.? RNA, 10:1957?66, 2004. (Cited in 99 papers) The finding: Bryan Cullen and colleagues at Duke University and the University of Kansas investigated the development of human micro-RNAs (miR
Twins diverge
Twins diverge
Credit: © Helen McArdle / Photo Researchers, Inc." /> Credit: © Helen McArdle / Photo Researchers, Inc. The paper: M.F. Fraga, et al. ?Epigenetic differences arise during the lifetime of monozygotic twins.? Proc Natl Acad Sci, 102:10413?4, 2005. (cited in 91 papers) The finding:

BioBusiness

Life on the Fast Track
Life on the Fast Track
Former AmpliMed CEO Rob Ashley is as quick on the race track as he is in the fast-paced world of drug development.

Pulse Oximeter

Science goes to China
Science goes to China
Thinking of moving to Shanghai or Beijing? Here's what you should know.
Considering China?
Considering China?
A few thoughts from those already there

Foundations

Tuberculin, 1890
Tuberculin, 1890
A vial of Koch?s Tuburculin from 1895 resides at Charité Hospital, Berlin. Credit: Courtesy of Terry Sharrer" />A vial of Koch?s Tuburculin from 1895 resides at Charité Hospital, Berlin. Credit: Courtesy of Terry Sharrer Robert Koch (1843?1910), who isolated Mycobacterium tuberculosis in 1882 and proved that it caused tuberculosis, announced at a medical congress in Berlin eight years later that he had developed a substance capable of preventing the growth of the tub